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1. Anatomy

GI Anatomy

Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report

From proximal to distal:

  1. Duodenum
  2. Jejunum
  3. Ileum
  4. Appendix
  5. Colon
  6. Sigmoid
  7. Rectum

Brachial Plexus Organization

Radical Teachers Drink Cold Beers

Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers

Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer

Red Trucks Drive Cats Nuts
  1. Roots
  2. Trunks
  3. Divisions
  4. Cords
  5. Branches

Cranial Nerves

On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops

Our Only Object To Touch And Feel Virgin Girls Vagina And Hymen
  1. I - olfactory
  2. II - optic
  3. III - oculomotor
  4. IV - trochlear
  5. V - trigeminal
  6. VI - abducens
  7. VII - facial
  8. VIII - acoustic (vestibulocochlear)
  9. IX - glossophrayngeal
  10. X - vagus
  11. XI - accessory
  12. XII - hypoglossal

Extraocular Muscles Innervation

LR6 SO4 3
  • LR 6 - Lateral Rectus by the VI cranial nerve (Abducens)
  • SO 4 - Superior Oblique by the IV cranial nerve (Trochlear)
  • 3 - The remaining by the III cranial nerve (Occulomotor)

LAST
  • L - Lateral Rectus
  • A - Abducens Nerve
  • S - Superior Oblique
  • T - Trochlear Nerve

Facial Nerve Branches

Two Zebras Bought My Car

Two Zebras Bit My Cookie

To Zanzibar By Motor Car

Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat
  1. Temporal
  2. Zygomatic
  3. Buccal
  4. Mandibular
  5. Cervical

Penis Innervation

Point and Shoot
  • Parasympathetic causes erection
  • Sympathetic causes ejaculation

S2, 3, 4 keep the penis off the floor
  • Innervation of the penis by branches of the pudendal nerve, derived from spinal cord levels S 2-4

Aorta Branches

ABC'S
  • Aortic arch gives off the:
  1. B - Bracheiocephalic trunk
  2. C - Left Common Carotid
  3. S - Left Subclavian artery

Femoral Triangle Structures in Order

N (AVEL)
  • Nerve
  • Artery
  • Vein
  • Empty space
  • Lymphatics

- Parenthesis includes things contained in the femoral sheath.

2. Cell Biology

Cell Division Phases

People Meet And Talk
  • P - Prophase
  • M - Metaphase
  • A - Anaphase
  • T - Telophase

Cell Cycle Stages

Go Sally Go! Make Children!
  • G1 phase - Growth phase 1
  • S phase - DNA synthesis
  • G2 phase - Growth phase 2
  • M phase - Mitosis
  • C phase - Cytokinesis

Golgi Complex Functions

Golgi Distributes A SPAM
  • Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
  • Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
  • Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
  • Proteoglycan assembly
  • Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
  • Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine

Collagen

COLLAGEN
  • C - C-terminal propeptide (procollagen) / Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/Chondroblasts/Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking)
  • O - Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • L - Lysyl hydroxylase / Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
  • L - Long triple helical fibers / Ligaments
  • A - Alpha chains / Attached by H bonds form triple helix / Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains

(postranslational modification)

  • G - Gly in every third position / Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose;GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
  • E - Extracellular matrix / Eye (cornea, sclera) / Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • N - N-terminal propeptide (procollagen) / Nonhelical terminal extensions

3. Molecular Biology

Carbon Monoxide: Electron Transport Chain Target

CO blocks CO

Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)

Hemoglobin Binding Curve: Right Shift Causes

CADET, face right!
  • C = Increase in carbon dioxide
  • A = Acidosis (low ph)
  • D = Increase in 2,3 DPG aka 2,3 BPG
  • E = Exercise
  • T = increase in temperature

G-proteins Receptors

QISS & QIQ" (Kiss and Kick)

In alphabetical order

  • Q: alpha 1
  • I: alpha 2
  • S: beta 1
  • S: beta 2
  • &
  • Q: M1
  • I: M2
  • Q: M3

Adrenaline Mechanism

ABC of Adrenaline
  • Adrenaline--> activates
  • Beta receptors--> increases
  • Cyclic AMP

4. Biochemistry

Enzymes Classification

Over The HILL
  • O - Oxidoreductases
  • T - Transferases
  • H - Hydrolases
  • I - Isomerases
  • L - Ligases
  • L - Lyases

Glycolysis Enzymes

Hungry Peter Pan And The Growling Pink Panther Eat Pies
  • Hexokinase
  • Phosphohexo isomerase
  • Phosphofructokinase-1 (6-phosphofructo-1 kinase)
  • Aldolase, Triose phosphate isomerase
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase
  • Phosphoglycerate mutase
  • Enolase
  • Pyruvate kinase

Glycolysis Steps

Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies
  • Glucose
  • Glucose-6-P
  • Fructose-6-P
  • Fructose-1,6-diP
  • Dihydroxyacetone-P
  • Glyceraldehyde-P
  • 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
  • 3-Phosphoglycerate
  • 2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate • 'Did', 'By' and 'Pies' tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.

• 'PrEPare' tells location of PEP in the process.

5. Metabolism


Metabolism Sites

Use both arms to HUG
  1. Heme synthesis
  2. Urea cycle
  3. Gluconeogenesis

These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria

AcetylCoA and AcetacetylCoA

A Lighter Lease (A LyTr LeIs)

Amino acids forming them:

  • A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA
  • Ly=Lysine
  • Tr=Tryptophan
  • Le=Leucine
  • Is=Isoleucine

Citric Acid Cycle Compounds

Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice
  • Oxaloacetate
  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • alpha-Ketoglutarate
  • Succinyl-CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumarate
  • Malate

Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?
  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • alpha-Ketogluterate
  • Succinyl CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumerate
  • Malate
  • Oxaloacetate

Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?

Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule
  • Oxaloacetate
  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate, alpha-Ketoglutarate
  • Succinyl CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumarate
  • Malate

Citric Acid Cycle Enzymes

Corrupt Anti Intelligence Agent Spoke Slander For Money
  • Citrate synthatase
  • Aconitase
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  • Alpha ketogluturate dehydrogenase
  • Succinyl CoA synthetase
  • Succinate dehydrogenase
  • Fumarase
  • Malate Dehydrogenase

Essential Amino Acids

P ri V a T e TIM HALL

PVT. TIM HALL

"PVT. TIM HALL always argues, never tires"
  • P - Phe
  • V - Val
  • T - Thr
  • T - Trp
  • I - Ile
  • M - Met
  • H - His
  • A - Arg
  • L - Leu
  • L - Lys
  • Pvt. is short for Private in the military
  • Arg and His are considered semi-essential
  • Alternatively: MATT VIL PHLy

Creatine Phosphate: Amino Acid Precursors

Nice GAMs!
  • G - Glycine
  • A - Arginine
  • M - Methionine

Branched Chain Amino Acids Catabolism Steps

Truck hit the Ox to Death
  • T - Transamination
  • O - Oxidative decarboxylation
  • D - Dehydrogenation

Branched-chain Amino Acids Used by Skeletal Muscle (Fasting State)

Muscles LIVe fast
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Valine

Urea Cycle

Ordinarily Careless Crappers Are Also Frivolous About Urination!
  • O - Ornithine
  • C - Carbamoyl
  • C - Citrulline
  • A - Aspartate
  • A - Arginosuccinate
  • F - Fumarate
  • A - Arginine
  • U - Urea

Pyrimidines Nucleotides

CUT the PY (pie)
  • Cytosine
  • Uracil
  • Thiamine
  • The
  • PYrimidines

6. Enzyme Deficiencies

G6PD: Oxidant Drugs Inducing Hemolytic Anemia

AAA
  • Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
  • Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
  • Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)

Pompe's Disease

Type "Police: Po + lys"
  • POmpe's disease is a LYSosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase)

Galactosemia

GALIPUT
  • Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase
  • There is an assay called the Galiput test for this

Fabry's Disease

FABRY ' S
  • F - Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules / Febrile episodes
  • A - Alpha galactosidase A deficiency / Angiokeratomas
  • B - Burning pain in extremities / BUN increased in serum / Boys
  • R - Renal failure
  • Y - YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
  • S - Sphingolipidoses

Hurler Syndrome Features

HURLER'S
  • Heptosplenomegaly
  • Ugly facies
  • Recessive (AR inheritance)
  • L-iduronidase deficiency (alpha)
  • Eyes clouded
  • Retarded
  • Stubby fingers/Short

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

5 P's
  • Pain in abdomen
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Psychologial abnormalities
  • Pink urine
  • Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)

7. Vitamins

B Vitamins

The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious

In increasing order:

  • T - Thiamine (B1)
  • R - Riboflavin (B2)
  • N - Niacin (B3)
  • P - Pyridoxine (B6)
  • C - Cobalamin (B12)

Niacin Deficiency

The famous 4 D's
  1. Diarrhea
  2. Dermatitis
  3. Dementia
  4. Death (if untreated)

The 3D's of pellagra

Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency

  1. Dermatitis
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Dementia

Folate Deficiency Causes

A FOLIC DROP
  • Alcoholism
  • Folic acid antagonists
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Low dietary intake
  • Infection with Giardia
  • Celiac sprue
  • Dilatin
  • Relative folate deficiency
  • Old
  • Pregnant

Fat Soluble Vitamins

The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)

Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.'

Hypervitaminosis A

Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD
  • H - Headache / Hepatomegaly
  • A - Anorexia / Alopecia
  • R - Really painful bones
  • D - Dry skin / Drowsiness

8. History Taking

Alcoholism Screening

CAGE
  • Have you ever felt it necessary to CUT DOWN on your drinking?
  • Have you ever been ANNOYED when people suggest you cut down on your drinking?
  • Have you ever felt GUILTY about your drinking?
  • Have you ever felt the need to have a drink in the morning for an EYE OPENER?

Chief Complaint

OPQRST
  • O - Onset of pain: what was the patient doing when the pain started?
  • P - Palliative or Provocative factors for the pain
  • Q - Quality of pain (burning, stabbing, aching, etc.)
  • R - Radiation (up to jaw, down left arm, etc.)
  • S - Severity of pain (usually 1 - 10 scale)
  • T - Timing of pain (eg: after meals, in the morning, how long it lasts, etc.)

SOCRATES
  • S - Site of pain
  • O - Onset of pain
  • C - Character of pain: dull, sharp, aching, stabbing, tearing
  • R - Radiation of pain: central abdominal pain radiating to Right Iliac Fossa
  • A - Associated factors: eg. nausea/vomiting
  • T - Timing of pain/duration
  • E - Exacerbating/alleviating factors
  • S - Severity of pain (1 - 10 scale)

ASCLAST
  • A - Aggravatiing and Alleviating factors
  • S - Severity
  • C - Character, quality
  • L - Location
  • A - Associated symptoms
  • S - Setting
  • T - Timing

NOTE: ASCLAST means let the patient talk first, then ask him/her specific questions.

Hospital Admission Orders

DAVE WILMINGTON
  • Diet
  • Activity
  • Vital signs: how often to monitor
  • Excrement: test urine/stool
  • Weight: how often to monitor
  • I / O: monitor input/output
  • Labs: which/how often
  • Meds: which/route/interval
  • I V fluids: what/at what rate
  • Nursing care: e.g. position, wound care, up in chair, ostomy care
  • General care: e.g. physical/respiratory therapy
  • Tests: e.g. X-ray/EKG/EEG
  • Observe for: reaction/seizure/neuro exams
  • Notify parameters: e.g. Temperature > 100 F / respiration changes

After noting date and time of admission as well as diagnosis and condition (ADC), use the mnemonic to ensure all areas are addressed, but not all apply to every patient.

ADC VAAN DIML, pronounced ADC van dim(e)L
  • Admit: 23 hours, full admit, service of attending
  • Diagnosis
  • Condition: "Stable"/"Guarded"
  • Vitals: post-op, routine, q 1 hour
  • Allergies
  • Activities: strict bed rest/fall precautions/ad lib/bathroom privileges
  • Nursing: strict I&O's/daily weights/call P.R.N.
  • Diet: NPO/regular/clears/advance diet as tolerated/2000 cal ADA/renal
  • IV fluids: D5, 1/2 NS, 20 KCL at 110 ml/hr, LR @ 100 ml/hr
  • Meds: scheduled and PRN's
  • Labs and X-ray: CBC in AM, PCXR in PACU

Note that IV fluids follows Diet. If one writes NPO, then all such patients get maintenance fluids (use the 4-2-1 rule).

Post-Op Fever Causes

Five W's
  • Wind: pneumonia, atelectasis
  • Wound: wound infections
  • Water: urinary tract infection
  • Walking: DVT/PE (walking can help reduce DVT/PE)
  • Wonderdrugs: especially anesthesia

Predisposing Conditions for Pulmonary Embolism

TOM SCH PREFER
  • T - Trauma
  • O - Obesity
  • M - Malignancy
  • S - Surgery
  • C - Cardiac disease
  • H - Hospitalization
  • P - Past history
  • R - Rest (bed-bound)
  • E - Estrogen, pregnancy, post-partum
  • F - Fracture
  • E - Elderly
  • R - Road trip

Compartment Syndrome Signs (Arterial Occlusion)

6 P's
  1. Pain
  2. Pale (Pallor)
  3. Perishing with Cold (Poikilothermia)
  4. Pulseless
  5. Paresthesias
  6. Paralysis

9. Pathology

Causes of Diseases

VITAMIN C
  • Vascular
  • Infectious
  • Trauma
  • Auto-immune
  • Metabolic
  • Idiopathic/Iatrogenic
  • Neoplastic
  • Congenital

Signs of Inflammation

  1. Rubor: redness/erythema
  2. Calor: raised temperature
  3. Tumor: swelling
  4. Dolor: pain
  5. Functio Laesa: loss of function

- Described by Celsus

Hypersentivity Reactions (Gell & Goombs Classification)

ACID
Anna Cycled Immediately Downhill
  1. Type I Anaphylaxis
  2. Type II Cytotoxic-mediated
  3. Type III Immune-complex
  4. Type IV Delayed hypersensitivity

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)

Each of the MENs is a disease of three or two letters plus a feature; all are autosomal dominant.

MEN I: 3 P's
  1. Pituitary
  2. Parathyroid
  3. Pancreas
  4. Plus Adrenal cortex

MEN II: 2 C's
  1. Carcinoma of thyroid
  2. Catacholamines (pheochromocytoma)

- MEN IIA: parathyroid - MEN IIB (MEN III): mucocutaneous neuromas for

Acute Pneumonia Infiltrates

  • Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate
  • Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate

Takayasu's Disease/Pulseless Disease

When you have Takayasu's, I can't Tak'a yu pulse

CBC Normal Differential

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

Nice Ladies Make Easter Bread"

60, 30, 6, 3, 1
  1. Neutrophils: 60%
  2. Lymphocytes: 30%
  3. Monocytes: 6%
  4. Eosinophils: 3%
  5. Basophils: 1%

10. Causes

Metabolic Acidosis Causes

MUDPILES
  • Methanol poisoning
  • Uremia
  • Diabetic Keto-acidosis
  • Para-aldehyde ingestion
  • Ischemia
  • Lactic Acidosis
  • Ethanol poisoning
  • Salicylate ingestion

Metabolic Acidosis (Normal Anion-Gap) Causes

With Hyperkalemia

RAISE K+
  • RTA type 4
  • Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
  • Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
  • "Stenosis": obstructive uropathy
  • Early uremia

With hypokalemia

ReDUCE K+
  • Renal TA type 1 and 2
  • Diarrhoea
  • Urine diversion into gut
  • Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
  • Ex-hyperventilation

BUN & Creatinine Elevation Causes

ABCD
  • A - Azotremia (pre-renal)
  • B - Bleeding (GI)
  • C - Catabolic status
  • D - Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)

Hypercalcemia Causes

PAM SCHMIDT
  • Paget's Disease
  • Amyloid
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Sarcoid
  • Cancer
  • Hormomal (para-thyroid)
  • Milk-alkali Syndrome
  • Immobilization
  • D-vitamin overdose
  • Thyrotoxicosis

OR

MISHAP
  • Malignancy
  • Intoxication (hypervitaminosis)
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Alkali (Milk) syndrome
  • Paget's Disease (bone)

Also consider Addison's disease, thiazide diuretics and simple lab error

Acute Pancreatitis Causes

GET SMASHED
  1. Gall stones
  2. Ethanol
  3. Trauma
  4. Steroids
  5. Mumps
  6. Autoimmune disease
  7. Scorpion venom
  8. Hyperlipidemia
  9. ERCP (dye)
  10. Drugs (Azathioprine, Asparginase, Mercaptopurines, Pentamidine)

Alcohol and Gallstones are the most common causes.

Back Pain Causes

DISK MASS
  • D-Degeneration: DJD, Osteoporosis, spondylosis
  • I-Infection: UTI, PID, Potts, osteomyelitis, prostatitis, Injury/fracture, compression fracture
  • S-Spondylitis, ankylosing Spondyloarthropathies (rheumatoid arthritis, Reiters, SLE)
  • K-Kidney stones/infarction/infection (pyelo/abscess)
  • M-Multiple myeloma, Metastasis from breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, kidney CA
  • A-Aneurysm, Abdominal pain referred to the back (see acute abdominal pain)
  • S-Slipped disk, Spondylolisthesis
  • S-Strain, Scoliosis/lordosis, Skin: herpes zoster

11. Treatment

Syncope Management

If the face is red, raise the head!

If the face is pale, raise the tail!

Malignant Hyperthermia Treatment

Sunday Hot Day, Better Give Iced Fluids Today!
  • S- Stop all triggering agents, give 100% O2
  • H- Hyperventillate
  • D- Dantrolene 2.5 mg/kg
  • B- Bicarbonate
  • G- Glucose and Insulin
  • I- IV Fluids, Cooling Blanket
  • F- Fluid Output; Furosemide
  • T- Tachycardia, be prepared to treat V Tach

12. Genetics

Down Syndrome Features

CHILD HAS PROBLEM!
  • Congenital heart disease/ Cataracts
  • Hypotonia/ Hypothyroidism
  • Incure 5th finger/ Increased gap between 1st and 2nd toe
  • Leukemia risk x2/ Lung problem
  • Duodenal atresia/ Delayed development
  • Hirshsprung's disease/ Hearing loss
  • Alzheimer's disease/ Alantoaxial instability
  • Squint/ Short neck
  • Protruding tongue/ Palm crease
  • Round face/ Rolling eye (nystagmus)
  • Occiput flat/ Oblique eye fissure
  • Brushfield spot/ Brachycephaly
  • Low nasal bridge/ Language problem
  • Epicanthic fold/ Ear folded
  • Mental retardation/ Myoclonus

DOWN
  • Decreased alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (maternal)
  • One extra chromosome twenty-one
  • Women of advanced age
  • Non-disjunction during maternal meiosis

Drink at 21

Chromosome 21

Patau's Syndrome - Chromosome 13

Puberty at 13

Edward's Syndrome - Chromosome 18

Election voter at 18

DiGeorge (Velocardiofacial) Syndrome

CATCH 22
  • Cardiac abnormalities
  • Abnormal facies
  • Thymic aplasia
  • Cleft palate
  • Hypocalcemia
  • 22q11 deletion

Marfan Syndrome Features

  1. Mitral valve prolapse - MVP
  2. Aortic Aneurysm
  3. Retinal detachment
  4. Fibrillin
  5. Arachnodactyly
  6. Negative Nitroprusside test (differentiates from homocystinuria)

Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

'"Polycystic kidney"' has 16 letters

Also, and is due to a defect on chromosome 16.

APKD

ADult Polycystic Kidney Disease is Autosomal Dominant

13. Pediatrics

APGAR Score

APGAR
  • Appearance (color): blue/pale, trunk pink, all pink
  • Pulse (heart rate): 0, <100, 100+
  • Grimace (reflex irritability): 0, grimace, grimace+cough
  • Activity (muscle tone): limp, some, active
  • Respiration (respiratory effort): 0, irregular, regular

- Score 0-2 at 1 and 5 minutes in each of 5 categories, being 10 the perfect score.


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