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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Synonyms and keywords:splanchnoptosis, abdominal ptosis, Glénard's disease


ICD-10 K63.4
ICD-9 569.89

Template:Search infobox Visceroptosis (or enteroptosis) is a prolapse or a sinking of the abdominal viscera below their natural position. Any or all of the organs may be displaced downward.

When the intestines are involved, the condition is known as enteroptosis; when the stomach is found below its normal position, the term gastroptosis is used.

The disease exists in all degrees of severity and may give rise to no symptoms whatsoever.

Generally, however, there is loss of appetite, nervous dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, abdominal distention, headache, vertigo, emaciation, and loss of sleep. Any or all of these symptoms may be present. The condition is brought about by loss of muscular tone, particularly of the abdominal muscles, intestinal autointoxication, with relaxation of the ligaments which hold the viscera in place.

In women, tight lacing has been held to be a frequent cause. The symptoms may be alleviated by supporting the organs with a properly applied bandage, or other similar device. Rest in bed, attention to diet, hygiene, exercise, and general muscular up building will cure the majority of cases. In others operation may become necessary.

Visceroptosis is also called splanchnoptosis, abdominal ptosis, and Glénard's disease, after a French physician Frantz Glénard (1848-1920).

  • Glénard's test — The examiner, standing behind the patient, places his arms around the patient, so that his hands meet in front of the patient's abdomen; he squeezes and raises the viscera and then allows them to fall suddenly. If the patient feels relieved by the raising pressure and experiences distress on the release, the condition is probably one of splanchoptosis.[1] Also called girdle test.
  • Glénard's theory — The theory that abdominal ptosis is a nutritional disease with atrophy and prolapse of the intestine.
  • Stiller's theory — The theory that gastroptosis is due to universal asthenia characterized by weakness and laxity of the viscera.

Historical Perspective




Differentiating Visceroptosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Natural History




Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy



External links



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