Abdominal guarding

Jump to navigation Jump to search

WikiDoc Resources for Abdominal guarding


Most recent articles on Abdominal guarding

Most cited articles on Abdominal guarding

Review articles on Abdominal guarding

Articles on Abdominal guarding in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Abdominal guarding

Images of Abdominal guarding

Photos of Abdominal guarding

Podcasts & MP3s on Abdominal guarding

Videos on Abdominal guarding

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Abdominal guarding

Bandolier on Abdominal guarding

TRIP on Abdominal guarding

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Abdominal guarding at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Abdominal guarding

Clinical Trials on Abdominal guarding at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Abdominal guarding

NICE Guidance on Abdominal guarding


FDA on Abdominal guarding

CDC on Abdominal guarding


Books on Abdominal guarding


Abdominal guarding in the news

Be alerted to news on Abdominal guarding

News trends on Abdominal guarding


Blogs on Abdominal guarding


Definitions of Abdominal guarding

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Abdominal guarding

Discussion groups on Abdominal guarding

Patient Handouts on Abdominal guarding

Directions to Hospitals Treating Abdominal guarding

Risk calculators and risk factors for Abdominal guarding

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Abdominal guarding

Causes & Risk Factors for Abdominal guarding

Diagnostic studies for Abdominal guarding

Treatment of Abdominal guarding

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Abdominal guarding


Abdominal guarding en Espanol

Abdominal guarding en Francais


Abdominal guarding in the Marketplace

Patents on Abdominal guarding

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Abdominal guarding

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Synonyms and keywords: Rebound, rigidity, rigid abdomen.


Abdominal guarding: Tensing of the abdominal wall muscles to guard inflamed organs within the abdomen from the pain of pressure upon them. The tensing is detected when the abdomen wall is pressed. [1]

Guarding is a characteristic finding in the physical examination for an abruptly painful abdomen (an acute abdomen) with inflammation of the inner abdominal (peritoneal) surface due, for example, to appendicitis or diverticulitis. The tensed muscles of the abdominal wall automatically go into spasm to keep the tender underlying tissues from being touched. [2]

Medical Emergencies Associated with Abdominal Guarding


Common Causes

Causes of Abdominal guarding by organ system

Cardiovascular Abdominal aortic aneurysm, aneurysm, mesenteric ischemia
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Abscess (e.g. iliopsoas), appendicitis, bowel obstruction, diverticulitis, hepatic or splenic contusion/laceration, ileus, intussusception, incarcerated hernia, mesenteric ischemia, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer disease, peritonitis, pneumoperitoneum secondary to trauma, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), volvulus
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Abdominal wall strain/injury, organ contusion
Neurologic Abdominal migraine
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic Ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cyst, pelvic inflammatory disease
Oncologic Ovarian cyst
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Insect toxins (e.g. black widow spider)
Psychiatric Anxiety, malingering
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte Nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection
Rheum / Immune / Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Fluid/blood secondary to trauma, hepatic or splenic contusion/laceration, organ contusion, organ laceration, pneumoperitoneum secondary to trauma
Urologic Nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes of Abdominal guarding in Alphabetical Order


Laboratory Findings

Electrolyte and Biomarker Studies

MRI and CT

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy

  • Specific conditions need direct treatment
  • Hemodynamic status and life-theratening disease require immediate attention
    • Volume replacement with a possible blood transfusion, and with normal saline
  • For obstruction and persistent vomiting, place nasogastric (NG) tube


Acute Pharmacotherapies

  • If perforated viscus or intra-abdominal infection suspected, administer broad-spectrum empiric antibiotics

Surgery and Device Based Therapy

  • Early sepsis, or evidence of hemorrhage may require surgery (likely to be life-threatening emergency)


  1. Abdominal guarding definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms
  2. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:3

Template:Skin and subcutaneous tissue symptoms and signs Template:Nervous and musculoskeletal system symptoms and signs Template:Urinary system symptoms and signs Template:Cognition, perception, emotional state and behaviour symptoms and signs Template:Speech and voice symptoms and signs Template:General symptoms and signs

Template:WH Template:WS