Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ventricular septal defect Microchapters


Patient Information





Differentiating Ventricular Septal Defect from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination


Chest X Ray




Cardiac Catheterization


Medical Therapy


Ventricular septal defect post-surgical prognosis

ACC/AHA Guidelines for Surgical and Catheter Intervention Follow-Up


ACC/AHA Guidelines for Reproduction

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

CDC on Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization in the news

Blogs on Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

Directions to Hospitals Treating Ventricular septal defect

Risk calculators and risk factors for Ventricular septal defect cardiac catheterization

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Keri Shafer, M.D. [2],Priyamvada Singh, MBBS

Cardiac Catheterization

Criteria for Cardiac Catheterization

1. The Mayo Clinic recommends cardiac catheterization for all adults and adolescents to quantify the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction, except in those who clearly appear to have a small VSD.

2. Infants suspected of having a large defect should undergo cardiac catheterization in the first year of life which should allow surgical correction prior to the onset of permanent pulmonary vascular obstructive disease.

2008 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Recommendations for Cardiac Catheterization (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

Class I
"1. Cardiac catheterization to assess the operability of adults with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) should be performed in an adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) regional center in collaboration with experts. (Level of Evidence: C) "
Class IIa
"1. Cardiac catheterization can be useful for adults with VSD in whom noninvasive data are inconclusive and further information is needed for management. Data to be obtained include the following:"
"a. Quantification of shunting. (Level of Evidence: B)"
"b. Assessment of pulmonary pressure and resistance in patients with suspected PAH. Reversibility of PAH should be tested with various vasodilators. (Level of Evidence: B) "
"c. Evaluation of other lesions such as aortic regurgitation (AR) and double-chambered right ventricle. (Level of Evidence: C) "
"d. Determination of whether multiple VSDs are present before surgery. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"e. Performance of coronary arteriography is indicated in patients at risk for coronary artery disease. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"f. VSD anatomy, especially if device closure is contemplated. (Level of Evidence: C)"

Recommendation for Interventional Catheterization (DO NOT EDIT) [1]

Class IIb
"1. Device closure of a muscular VSD may be considered, especially if the VSD is remote from the tricuspid valve and the aorta, if the VSD is associated with severe left-sided heart chamber enlargement, or if there is PAH. (Level of Evidence: C)"


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA; et al. (2008). "ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines on the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease). Developed in Collaboration With the American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons". J Am Coll Cardiol. 52 (23): e1–121. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.10.001. PMID 19038677.

Template:WikiDoc Sources