The TMEM106A protein has a molecular weight of 28.9 kdal. It has 262 amino acids, 240 of which are in the domain of function. The protein has a transmembrane region. There is evidence for a secondary transmembrane region in humans but this region is not conserved in related orthologs. The protein does not contain a peptide signal protein. The protein structure contains a similar proportion of alpha-helix and beta-strand secondary structures (this does not include transmembrane structures).
The TMEM106A gene has two paralogs: TMEM106B and TMEM106C. These paralogs belong to the gene family pfam07092, which belongs to the DUF1356 superfamily. This family consists of several mammalian proteins that are around 250 amino acids in length. TMEM106B and TMEM106C are conserved in invertebrates to mammals.
The TMEM106A gene has been found in only the Chordate phylum. Of the three subphyla, TMEM106A is most commonly found in Vertebrata and has also been found in select members of Tunicata, which are invertebrate marine filter feeders. This phylum split occurred 722.5 million years ago.TMEM106A has not been seen in bacteria, plants, or fungi.
TMEM106A is expressed in several human tissues. The tissues with highest expression are uterus, kidneys, small intestine, and stomach. EST profiles for orthologs show expression is conserved with greatest expression in kidneys and lesser expression in several other areas. Some tissues never show expression including: muscle, adipose tissue, and bone.
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