Scleroderma primary prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: M. Khurram Afzal, MD [2]


Effective measures for the primary prevention of scleroderma include avoiding occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica, epoxy resins, welding fumes and hand-arm vibration.

Primary Prevention


  1. Diot E, Lesire V, Guilmot JL, Metzger MD, Pilore R, Rogier S, Stadler M, Diot P, Lemarie E, Lasfargues G (August 2002). "Systemic sclerosis and occupational risk factors: a case-control study". Occup Environ Med. 59 (8): 545–9. PMC 1740346. PMID 12151611.
  2. Barnes J, Mayes MD (March 2012). "Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis: incidence, prevalence, survival, risk factors, malignancy, and environmental triggers". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 24 (2): 165–70. doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e32834ff2e8. PMID 22269658.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Dospinescu P, Jones GT, Basu N (March 2013). "Environmental risk factors in systemic sclerosis". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 25 (2): 179–83. doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e32835cfc2d. PMID 23287382.
  4. Marie I, Gehanno JF, Bubenheim M, Duval-Modeste AB, Joly P, Dominique S, Bravard P, Noël D, Cailleux AF, Weber J, Lagoutte P, Benichou J, Levesque H (February 2014). "Prospective study to evaluate the association between systemic sclerosis and occupational exposure and review of the literature". Autoimmun Rev. 13 (2): 151–6. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2013.10.002. PMID 24129037.
  5. De Martinis M, Ciccarelli F, Sirufo MM, Ginaldi L (2016). "An overview of environmental risk factors in systemic sclerosis". Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 12 (4): 465–78. doi:10.1586/1744666X.2016.1125782. PMID 26610037.

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