Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction overview

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Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction Microchapters


Patient Information


Anatomy of Pulmonary Valve


Pulmonary valve stenosis
Pulmonary subvalvular stenosis
Pulmonary supravalvular stenosis
Pulmonary atresia



Differentiating Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination


Chest X Ray


Cardiac Catheterization

Pulmonary Angiography


Indications For Surgery


Pre-Operative A/P

Post-Operative A/P

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Special Scenarios

Pulmonary artery conduits/Prosthetic Valves

Double-Chambered Right Ventricle

Case Studies

Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editors-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Keri Shafer, M.D. [3] Mohammed Salih, MD. [4]


Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and/or pulmonary artery obstruction are present in some form in 25 % of all congenital heart defects. The right ventricular outflow tract obstruction includes stenosis or narrowing of the pulmonary valve, the tissue above the valve (supravalvar obstruction) and below it(subvalvar obstruction). Congenital subvalvar and supravalvar right ventricular outflow tract stenosis usually occurs with other congenital heart defects such as Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) or Tetralogy of Fallot. The timing and type of surgery will vary from patient to patient depending upon the severity of the obstruction and the associated congenital defect.

If right ventricular outflow tract obstruction is present and the ventricular septum is intact, usually the right ventricle will adapt better given that no right to left shunting is present. This absence of shunting may result in sufficient pulmonary blood flow to allow the patient to remain asymptomatic longer.

Usually therapy is directed to increase pulmonary blood flow and decompressing the right ventricle (RV) and it will depend on the severity and location of the defect. According to the anatomic features of the pulmonary valve stenosis, the physician may use balloon dilatation (a minimally invasive transvenous procedure) to dilate the obstruction during cardiac catheterization, but if the pulmonary artery is the structure involved, stenting (insertion of a small tube) within the narrowed region can be done following balloon angioplasty. Standard treatment of right ventricular outflow tract or pulmonary artery obstruction involves open chest surgery. [1] [2][3] [4] [5]


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  4. Hull MC, Morris CG, Pepine CJ, Mendenhall NP (2003). "Valvular dysfunction and carotid, subclavian, and coronary artery disease in survivors of hodgkin lymphoma treated with radiation therapy". JAMA. 290 (21): 2831–7. doi:10.1001/jama.290.21.2831. PMID 14657067.
  5. Dweck MR, Boon NA, Newby DE (2012). "Calcific aortic stenosis: a disease of the valve and the myocardium". J Am Coll Cardiol. 60 (19): 1854–63. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.093. PMID 23062541.