Retinoblastoma history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[3] Simrat Sarai, M.D. [4]


The hallmark of retinoblastoma is leukocoria, which is an abnormal appearance of the retina as viewed through the pupil, also known as amaurotic cat's eye reflex. Common symptoms of retinoblastoma include strabismus and proptosis. The clinical presentation depends on the stage of the disease.

History and Symptoms



T2 MRI showing retinoblastoma[6]


  1. Shields CL, Shields JA, Baez K, Cater JR, De Potter P (February 1994). "Optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. Metastatic potential and clinical risk factors". Cancer. 73 (3): 692–8. PMID 8299091.
  2. Chebbi A, Bouguila H, Boussaid S, Ben Aleya N, Zgholi H, Malek I, Zeghal I, Nacef L (June 2014). "[Clinical features of retinoblastoma in Tunisia]". J Fr Ophtalmol (in French). 37 (6): 442–8. doi:10.1016/j.jfo.2014.01.009. PMID 24792399.
  3. Abramson DH, Beaverson K, Sangani P, Vora RA, Lee TC, Hochberg HM, Kirszrot J, Ranjithan M (December 2003). "Screening for retinoblastoma: presenting signs as prognosticators of patient and ocular survival". Pediatrics. 112 (6 Pt 1): 1248–55. PMID 14654593.
  4. Shifa, Jemal Zeberga; Gezmu, Alemayehu Mekonnen (2017). "Presenting signs of retinoblastoma at a tertiary level teaching hospital in Ethiopia". Pan African Medical Journal. 28. doi:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.66.11199. ISSN 1937-8688.
  5. Khetan, Vikas; Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab (2016). "Adult onset retinoblastoma". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 64 (7): 485. doi:10.4103/0301-4738.190099. ISSN 0301-4738.
  6. Image courtesy of Dr. Frank Gaillard Radiopaedia (original file [1]).[ Creative Commons BY-SA-NC
  7. Clark, Robin D.; Avishay, Stefanie G. (2015). "Retinoblastoma: Genetic Counseling and Testing": 77–88. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-43451-2_8.