Oral candidiasis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmed Younes M.B.B.CH [2]


Oral candidiasis is not common among the general population but is frequently diagnosed in the immunocompromised patients.

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The infection is not very common in the general population.
  • It is estimated that between 5% and 7% of infants less than one month old will develop oral candidiasis.
  • The prevalence of oral candidiasis among AIDS patients is estimated to be between 9% and 31%, and studies have documented clinical evidence of oral candidiasis in nearly 20% of cancer patients.[1]
  • Thrush is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections.
  • The incidence is 8 cases per 100,000 in the general population.
  • There is a higher incidence among neonates and African-Americans.[2]
  • Oleander (OPC) used to be a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected persons (prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART).
  • Nosocomial disease surveillance is conducted by NNIS in selected hospitals. Active population-based surveillance for candidemia is being conducted in selected U.S. sites.[3]


  1. Daniluk T, Tokajuk G, Stokowska W, Fiedoruk K, Sciepuk M, Zaremba ML, Rozkiewicz D, Cylwik-Rokicka D, Kedra BA, Anielska I, Górska M, Kedra BR (2006). "Occurrence rate of oral Candida albicans in denture wearer patients". Adv Med Sci. 51 Suppl 1: 77–80. PMID 17458064.
  2. Campisi G, Pizzo G, Milici ME, Mancuso S, Margiotta V (2002). "Candidal carriage in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects". Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 93 (3): 281–6. PMID 11925537.
  3. Reichart PA (2003). "Oral manifestations in HIV infection: fungal and bacterial infections, Kaposi's sarcoma". Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 192 (3): 165–9. doi:10.1007/s00430-002-0175-5. PMID 12684760.

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