Merkel cell cancer causes

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Merkel cell cancer Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vamsikrishna Gunnam M.B.B.S [2]


Common causes of merkel cell carcinoma include merkel cell polyomavirus, age, skin tone, exposure to sunlight and history of immunosuppression.


Common Causes

Common causes of merkel cell carcinoma may include:[1][2]

Less Common Causes

Less common causes of merkel cell carcinoma include:

  • Age
    • The risk increases with the age and the median age is around 65 years or above.

Genetic Causes


  1. Heath M, Jaimes N, Lemos B, Mostaghimi A, Wang LC, Peñas PF, Nghiem P (March 2008). "Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58 (3): 375–81. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.11.020. PMC 2335370. PMID 18280333.
  2. Feng, H.; Shuda, M.; Chang, Y.; Moore, P. S. (2008). "Clonal Integration of a Polyomavirus in Human Merkel Cell Carcinoma". Science. 319 (5866): 1096–100. doi:10.1126/science.1152586. PMC 2740911. PMID 18202256.
  3. Carter JJ, Paulson KG, Wipf GC, Miranda D, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, Lemos BD, Lee S, Warcola AH, Iyer JG, Nghiem P, Galloway DA (November 2009). "Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (21): 1510–22. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp332. PMC 2773184. PMID 19776382.
  4. Miller RW, Rabkin CS (February 1999). "Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 8 (2): 153–8. PMID 10067813.
  5. Agelli M, Clegg LX (November 2003). "Epidemiology of primary Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 49 (5): 832–41. doi:10.1067/S0190. PMID 14576661.
  6. Clarke CA, Robbins HA, Tatalovich Z, Lynch CF, Pawlish KS, Finch JL, Hernandez BY, Fraumeni JF, Madeleine MM, Engels EA (February 2015). "Risk of merkel cell carcinoma after solid organ transplantation". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 107 (2). doi:10.1093/jnci/dju382. PMC 4311175. PMID 25575645.
  7. Penn I, First MR (December 1999). "Merkel's cell carcinoma in organ recipients: report of 41 cases". Transplantation. 68 (11): 1717–21. PMID 10609948.
  8. Engels EA, Frisch M, Goedert JJ, Biggar RJ, Miller RW (February 2002). "Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection". Lancet. 359 (9305): 497–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07668-7. PMID 11853800.
  9. Manganoni MA, Farisoglio C, Tucci G, Venturini M, Marocolo D, Aquilano MC, El-Hamad I, Ferrari VD, Calzavara Pinton PG (July 2007). "Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection: a case report and review of the literature". AIDS Patient Care STDS. 21 (7): 447–51. doi:10.1089/apc.2006.0152. PMID 17651025.