Hypocalcemia risk factors

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Hypocalcemia Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Hypocalcemia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


X Ray



Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vamsikrishna Gunnam M.B.B.S [2]


The most common risk factor of hypocalcemia is vitamin D deficiency. Other common causes of hypocalcemia include low intake of magnesium, newborn babies, parathyroid hormone (PTH), hyperphosphatemia and chronic kidney disease.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors


  1. Carroll R, Matfin G (February 2010). "Endocrine and metabolic emergencies: hypocalcaemia". Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 1 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1177/2042018810366494. PMC 3474611. PMID 23148147.
  2. Riccardi D, Brown EM (March 2010). "Physiology and pathophysiology of the calcium-sensing receptor in the kidney". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 298 (3): F485–99. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00608.2009. PMC 2838589. PMID 19923405.
  3. Lee S, Mannstadt M, Guo J, Kim SM, Yi HS, Khatri A, Dean T, Okazaki M, Gardella TJ, Jüppner H (October 2015). "A Homozygous [Cys25]PTH(1-84) Mutation That Impairs PTH/PTHrP Receptor Activation Defines a Novel Form of Hypoparathyroidism". J. Bone Miner. Res. 30 (10): 1803–13. doi:10.1002/jbmr.2532. PMC 4580526. PMID 25891861.
  4. Dickerson RN, Alexander KH, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO (2004). "Accuracy of methods to estimate ionized and "corrected" serum calcium concentrations in critically ill multiple trauma patients receiving specialized nutrition support". JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 28 (3): 133–41. doi:10.1177/0148607104028003133. PMID 15141404.
  5. Coiffier B, Altman A, Pui CH, Younes A, Cairo MS (June 2008). "Guidelines for the management of pediatric and adult tumor lysis syndrome: an evidence-based review". J. Clin. Oncol. 26 (16): 2767–78. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.15.0177. PMID 18509186.
  6. Murray RM, Grill V, Crinis N, Ho PW, Davison J, Pitt P (September 2001). "Hypocalcemic and normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism in patients with advanced prostatic cancer". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (9): 4133–8. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.9.7864. PMID 11549639.
  7. Smallridge RC, Wray HL, Schaaf M (July 1981). "Hypocalcemia with osteoblastic metastases in patient with prostate carcinoma. A cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism". Am. J. Med. 71 (1): 184–8. PMID 7246580.

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