Hyperventilation syndrome overview

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Hyperventilation syndrome Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Differentiating Hyperventilation syndrome from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray


Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


In psychiatry, hyperventilation syndrome is an episodic disorder that often presents with chest pain and a tingling sensation of the fingertips (paresthesia) and around the mouth, as well as deep and labored breathing (causing hyperventilation), although chronic but subtle hyperventilation can cause these symptoms too.

Risk Factors

Hyperventilation syndrome can be triggered by emotions of stress, anxiety, depression, or anger. Occasional hyperventilation from panic is generally related to a specific fear or phobia, such as a fear of heights, dying, or closed-in spaces (claustrophobia).


Chest X Ray

Chest radiography is usually performed to rule out any acute pulmonary or cardiac pathology. In patients with hyperventilation syndrome a chest X-ray should be normal.


In majority of cases, patients with a normal chest X-ray will not need a chest CT. The chest CT is indicated to evaluate abnormalities found on chest X-ray, such as possible pulmonary nodules or masses, parenchymal infiltrates. CT angiography (CTA) of the chest is done when pulmonary embolism needs to be ruled out.


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