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RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Gamma-synuclein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNCG gene.[1][2][3]

Synuclein-gamma is a member of the synuclein family of proteins, which are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. High levels of SNCG have been identified in advanced breast carcinomas suggesting a correlation between overexpression of SNCG and breast tumor development.[3] Gamma-synuclein is a synuclein protein found primarily in the peripheral nervous system (in primary sensory neurons, sympathetic neurons, and motor neurons) and retina.[4] It is also detected in the brain, ovarian tumors, and in the olfactory epithelium. Gamma-synuclein is the least conserved of the synuclein proteins.[5]

Gamma-Synucleins expression in breast tumors is a marker for tumor progression[6] as mammalian gamma-synuclein was first identified as breast cancer-specific gene 1 (BCSG1). A change in the expression of gamma-synuclein has been observed in the retina of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The normal cellular function of gamma-synuclein remains unknown.[4]


Gamma-synuclein has been shown to interact with BUB1B.[7]

See also


  1. Ji H, Liu YE, Jia T, Wang M, Liu J, Xiao G, Joseph BK, Rosen C, Shi YE (Mar 1997). "Identification of a breast cancer-specific gene, BCSG1, by direct differential cDNA sequencing". Cancer Res. 57 (4): 759–64. PMID 9044857.
  2. Ninkina NN, Alimova-Kost MV, Paterson JW, Delaney L, Cohen BB, Imreh S, Gnuchev NV, Davies AM, Buchman VL (Oct 1998). "Organization, expression and polymorphism of the human persyn gene". Hum Mol Genet. 7 (9): 1417–24. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.9.1417. PMID 9700196.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: SNCG synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific protein 1)".
  4. 4.0 4.1 George JM (2002). "The synucleins". Genome Biology. 3 (1): REVIEWS3002. doi:10.1186/gb-2001-3-1-reviews3002. PMC 150459. PMID 11806835.
  5. Lavedan C (1998). "The synuclein family". Genome Res. 8 (9): 871–880. doi:10.1101/gr.8.9.871. PMID 9750188.
  6. Bruening W, Giasson BI, Klein-Szanto AJ, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Godwin A (2000). "Synucleins are expressed in the majority of breast and ovarian carcinomas and in preneoplastic lesions of the ovary". Cancer. 88 (9): 2154–2163. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000501)88:9<2154::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 10813729.
  7. Gupta, Anu; Inaba Satoru; Wong Oi Kwan; Fang Guowei; Liu Jingwen (Oct 2003). "Breast cancer-specific gene 1 interacts with the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1". Oncogene. England. 22 (48): 7593–9. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206880. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 14576821.

Further reading

  • George JM (2002). "The synucleins". Genome Biol. 3 (1): REVIEWS3002. doi:10.1186/gb-2001-3-1-reviews3002. PMC 150459. PMID 11806835.
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298.
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.
  • Lavedan C, Leroy E, Dehejia A, et al. (1998). "Identification, localization and characterization of the human gamma-synuclein gene". Hum. Genet. 103 (1): 106–12. doi:10.1007/s004390050792. PMID 9737786.
  • Buchman VL, Hunter HJ, Pinõn LG, et al. (1998). "Persyn, a member of the synuclein family, has a distinct pattern of expression in the developing nervous system". J. Neurosci. 18 (22): 9335–41. PMID 9801372.
  • Lavedan C, Buchholtz S, Auburger G, et al. (1999). "Absence of mutation in the beta- and gamma-synuclein genes in familial autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease". DNA Res. 5 (6): 401–2. doi:10.1093/dnares/5.6.401. PMID 10048491.
  • Surguchov A, Surgucheva I, Solessio E, Baehr W (1999). "Synoretin--A new protein belonging to the synuclein family". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 13 (2): 95–103. doi:10.1006/mcne.1999.0735. PMID 10192768.
  • Duda JE, Shah U, Arnold SE, et al. (2000). "The expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synucleins in olfactory mucosa from patients with and without neurodegenerative diseases". Exp. Neurol. 160 (2): 515–22. doi:10.1006/exnr.1999.7228. PMID 10619569.
  • Souza JM, Giasson BI, Lee VM, Ischiropoulos H (2000). "Chaperone-like activity of synucleins". FEBS Lett. 474 (1): 116–9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01563-5. PMID 10828462.
  • Pronin AN, Morris AJ, Surguchov A, Benovic JL (2000). "Synucleins are a novel class of substrates for G protein-coupled receptor kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (34): 26515–22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003542200. PMID 10852916.
  • Galvin JE, Schuck TM, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (2001). "Differential expression and distribution of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein in the developing human substantia nigra". Exp. Neurol. 168 (2): 347–55. doi:10.1006/exnr.2000.7615. PMID 11259122.
  • Surguchov A, Palazzo RE, Surgucheva I (2002). "Gamma synuclein: subcellular localization in neuronal and non-neuronal cells and effect on signal transduction". Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton. 49 (4): 218–28. doi:10.1002/cm.1035. PMID 11746666.
  • Uversky VN, Li J, Souillac P, et al. (2002). "Biophysical properties of the synucleins and their propensities to fibrillate: inhibition of alpha-synuclein assembly by beta- and gamma-synucleins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (14): 11970–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109541200. PMID 11812782.
  • Lu A, Zhang F, Gupta A, Liu J (2002). "Blockade of AP1 transactivation abrogates the abnormal expression of breast cancer-specific gene 1 in breast cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31364–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201060200. PMID 12072430.
  • Pan ZZ, Bruening W, Giasson BI, et al. (2002). "Gamma-synuclein promotes cancer cell survival and inhibits stress- and chemotherapy drug-induced apoptosis by modulating MAPK pathways". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (38): 35050–60. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201650200. PMID 12121974.
  • Li QX, Campbell BC, McLean CA, et al. (2003). "Platelet alpha- and gamma-synucleins in Parkinson's disease and normal control subjects". J. Alzheimers Dis. 4 (4): 309–15. PMID 12446933.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. Bibcode:2002PNAS...9916899M. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.