Fibromuscular dysplasia historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohsen Basiri M.D.


Fibromuscular dysplasia was first discovered by Leadbetter and Burkland, in 1938 following evaluation of severe hypertension in a 5-year-old boy. The first histopathological description of fibromuscular dysplasia and pathologic classification for this condition was proposed in 1958 and 1971 by McCormack and coworkers.

Fibromuscular dysplasia with involvement of extrarenal arteries has been considering in recent years. However numerous aspects of molecular biology ang genetic etiology of this condition remains unanswered, and there are various top research priorities in the field of FMD to improve our understanding of this condition.

Historical Perspective


  • Fibromuscular dysplasia was first introduced by Leadbetter and Burkland in 1938 in a 5-year-old boy with severe hypertension in a unilateral intra-arteria mass. this American-African boy underwent a unilateral nephrectomy and his hypertension was remedied.[1]
  • Although the first histopathological description of this condition performed by McCormack and coworkers by the report of four cases of “fibromuscular hyperplasia” in 1958.[2]
  • The first conception of these occlusive masses was described as hyperplasia and it lasted about 13 years until the exact pathologic classification of fibromuscular dysplasia was proposed in 1971 by Harrison and McCormack.[3]
  • In 1965, Hill and Antonius were the first to report FMD in coronary arteries.[5]
  • In 2012, after several months of the release of the French Registry for FMD and European Consensus on the diagnosis and management of FMD, the United States Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia (US Registry) reported data from the first 447 patients were enrolled.[6][7][8]
  • During past decades and especially in recent years, these efforts and publications have dispelled some aspects of FMD enigma.these are significant efforts to improve our clarification of non-atherosclerotic causes vascular accidents. Nevertheless, FMD remains a medical myth specifically at the genetic and molecular levels. It is hoped that the new researches and studies provide more effective and evidence-based information for diagnosis and treatment of FMD.


  1. Leadbetter, W.F.; Burkland, Carl E. (1938). "Hypertension in Unilateral Renal Disease". The Journal of Urology. 39 (5): 611–626. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)71895-2. ISSN 0022-5347.
  2. McCormack LJ, Hazard JB, Poutasse EF. Obstructive lesions of the renal artery associated with remediable hypertension. Am J Pathol 1958;34:582. abstract.
  3. E. G. Jr Harrison & L. J. McCormack (1971). "Pathologic classification of renal arterial disease in renovascular hypertension". Mayo Clinic proceedings. 46 (3): 161–167. PMID 5553126. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. A. J. PALUBINSKAS & H. R. RIPLEY (1964). "FIBROMUSCULAR HYPERPLASIA IN EXTRARENAL ARTERIES". Radiology. 82: 451–455. doi:10.1148/82.3.451. PMID 14127173. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. L. D. HILL & J. I. ANTONIUS (1965). "ARTERIAL DYSPLASIA: AN IMPORTANT SURGICAL LESION". Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960). 90: 585–595. PMID 14267661. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Sebastien Savard, Olivier Steichen, Arshid Azarine, Michel Azizi, Xavier Jeunemaitre & Pierre-Francois Plouin (2012). "Association between 2 angiographic subtypes of renal artery fibromuscular dysplasia and clinical characteristics". Circulation. 126 (25): 3062–3069. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.117499. PMID 23155180. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Alexandre Persu, Alessandra Giavarini, Emmanuel Touze, Andrzej Januszewicz, Marc Sapoval, Michel Azizi, Xavier Barral, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Alberto Morganti, Pierre-Francois Plouin & Peter de Leeuw (2014). "European consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia". Journal of hypertension. 32 (7): 1367–1378. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000213. PMID 24842696. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Jeffrey W. Olin, James Froehlich, Xiaokui Gu, J. Michael Bacharach, Kim Eagle, Bruce H. Gray, Michael R. Jaff, Esther S. H. Kim, Pam Mace, Alan H. Matsumoto, Robert D. McBane, Eva Kline-Rogers, Christopher J. White & Heather L. Gornik (2012). "The United States Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia: results in the first 447 patients". Circulation. 125 (25): 3182–3190. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.091223. PMID 22615343. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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