Exophthalmos differential diagnosis

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Exophthalmos Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Differentiating Exophthalmos from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: John Fani Srour, M.D.


Differential Diagnosis

Complete Differential Diagnosis of the Causes of Exophthalmos:

(In alphabetical order)

ipsilateral lid retraction, axial myopia, contralateral blepharoptosis)

Complete Differential Diagnosis of the Causes of Exophthalmos:

(By organ system)

Cardiovascular carotid-cavernous fistula, cavernous sinus thrombosis, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, Hemangioma, Varices,
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic Sturge-Weber syndrome
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat Orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, Orbital mass, Sinusitis
Endocrine Basedow syndrome, Graves' disease, Hyperthyroidism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Cloverleaf skull syndrome, dermoid cyst, Lowry-MacLean syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome, Raine syndrome, Osteodysplasty (Melnick-Needles), Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis, Insulin receptor defect with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, Neu-Laxova syndrome, Schinzel-Giedion midface-retraction syndrome, Neuroblastoma Neurofibromatosis, Retinoblastoma, Von Recklinghausen's disease

Hematologic Lymphoma, Leukemia
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease orbital cellulitis, endophthalmitis, sinusitis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Meningioma, Sturge-Weber syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic histiocytosis X, nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, hemangioma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, neurofibromatosis, optic glioma, retinoblastoma, Von Recklinghausen's disease, Lymphoma, Leukemia
Ophthalmologic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, orbital mass, corneal ulcer, Pseudoproptosis, orbital Varices, orbital emphysema,
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis
Renal / Electrolyte Wegener granulomatosis
Rheum / Immune / Allergy graves' disease, polyarteritis nodosa, wegener granulomatosis, churg-Strauss syndrome, Relapsing polychondritis,
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Orbital emphysema, Corneal ulcer
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes