Chronic stable angina treatment
Chronic stable angina Microchapters
Differentiating Chronic Stable Angina from Acute Coronary Syndromes
Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina
Guidelines for Asymptomatic Patients
Chronic stable angina treatment On the Web
Risk calculators and risk factors for Chronic stable angina treatment
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  Phone:617-632-7753; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. ; John Fani Srour, M.D.; Jinhui Wu, M.D.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan. M.B.B.S.
Treatment of chronic stable angina aims at minimizing symptoms, reducing recurrent ischemia, improving the quality of life and improving prognosis by preventing MI and death. Treatment options include lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and revascularization that help in slowing the disease progression, preserving the endothelial function and preventing thrombosis.
Patients with single-vessel CAD may be started on initial pharmacologic therapy and if non-responsive or symptomatic despite on therapy, PCI may be a preferred alternative.
Patients with double-vessel CAD and with normal LV function may be started on initial medical management and in non-responders, PCI may be considered. However, the decision of PCI versus CABG depends on the coronary anatomy, LV function and the need for complete revascularization.
Patients with triple-vessel CAD or left main disease or reduced left ventricular function, CABG is the mainstay of management. However, in cases of mild symptoms or preserved LVEF in patients with triple-vessel disease, initial pharmacologic therapy or PCI may be tried.
- While chronic stable angina may be due to underlying atherosclerosis, other factors may either precipitate or exacerbate angina.
- Identification and management of these conditions may reduce the frequency and intensity of anginal episodes. These conditions include:
- Uncontrolled hypertension,
- Thyroid disorders (thyrotoxicosis),
- Heart rhythm abnormalities (tachyarrhythmias),
- Decompensated congestive heart failure and
- Concomitant valvular heart disease.
Risk Factor Modification
- Initiation of intensive modification of risk factors is an urgent and essential part of the main therapy in chronic stable angina.
- Initiate risk factor modification, promote regular physical exercise (all patients should be encouraged to obtain 30 to 60 minutes/day of regular aerobic activity), low fat diet, and lifestyle modification.
- You can read in greater detail about each of the risk factor modification topics below:
- Smoking Cessation | Weight Management | Physical Activity | Lipid Management | BP Control | Diabetes Control | ACC/AHA Guidelines for Cardiovascular Risk Factor Reduction
The Treatment Essentials
Alphabet of chronic stable angina management: Elements listed below are the most important components of stable angina management.
- A: Aspirin use
- A: Anti anginal therapy
- B: Beta blocker use
- B: Blood pressure control
- C: Cholesterol lowering therapy
- C: Cigarette smoking cessation
- D: Diabetes Mellitus control
- D: Diet
- E: Exercise
- E: Education
- The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic stable angina is to reduce the severity and frequency of symptoms and to provide a bettered overall prognosis.
- In patients with chronic stable angina, immediate symptomatic relief is achieved with short-acting sublingual nitrates and long term relief of symptoms is achieved with beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and long-acting nitrates.
- Drugs that improve quality of life and are associated with better prognosis include: low dose aspirin, ACEIs, beta-blockers.
- You can read in greater detail about each of the pharmacotherapies for chronic stable angina below by clicking on the link for that topic:
- Antiplatelet agents: Aspirin | Dipyridamole | Clopidogrel
- Antianginal agents: Nitrates | Beta Blockers | Calcium Channel Blockers | Potassium Channel Openers | Newer Anti-anginal Agents
- Revascularization is only used for select patients specially those who have uncontrolled symptoms with optimal medical therapy.
- This can be achieved with either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement or coronary artery bypass surgery.
- With the availability of drug-eluting stents, PCI is increasingly being performed for many lesions including more complex ones.
- You can read in greater detail about specific revascularization approaches for the treatment of chronic stable angina by clicking on the link below for that topic.
Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina
You can read in greater detail about each of the alternative therapies for refractory angina below by clicking on the link for that topic:
- Transmyocardial Revascularization
- Spinal Cord Stimulation
- Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP)
- ACC/AHA Guidelines for Alternative Therapies in Patients with Refractory Angina