Ascites (patient information)

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What are the symptoms?

Who is at highest risk?


When to seek urgent medical care?

Treatment options

Diseases with similar symptoms

Where to find medical care for Ascites?


What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]


Ascites is excess fluid in the space between the tissues lining the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity).

What are the symptoms of Ascites?

When just a small amount of fluid has collected in the belly, there may be no symptoms. Symptoms often develop slowly or suddenly, but a rapid buildup of fluid and symptoms may occur with some causes of ascites.

As more fluid collects, abdominal pain and bloating may occur. When a large amount of ascites is present shortness of breath may develop also.

What causes Ascites ?

A person with ascites usually has severe liver disease. Ascites due to liver disease is caused by high pressure in the blood vessels of the liver (portal hypertension) and low albumin levels.

Cirrhosis and any illness that leads to it is a common cause of ascites. Long-term infections with hepatitis C or B and long-term alcohol abuse are two of the most common causes of cirrhosis.

People with colon cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer may develop ascites. Other conditions which may lead to this problem include:

Disorders that may be associated with ascites include:

Kidney dialysis may also be associated with ascites.


A physical examination may reveal a swollen abdomen, or belly.

Test to evaluate the liver may be done, including:

  • 24-hour urine collection
  • Creatinine and electrolytes
  • Kidney function tests
  • Liver enzyme, bilirubin, coagulation, and serum protein tests
  • Urinalysis

Paracentesis or abdominal tap may be performed. This procedure involves using a thin needle to pull fluid from the abdomen. The fluid is tested in various ways to determine the cause of ascites.

When to Contact a Medical Professional ?

Anyone who has ascites and develops new abdominal pain and fever should contact their health care provider immediately.


The condition that causes ascites will be treated, if possible.

Treatment may include:

  • Diuretics, or "water pills," to help remove the fluid; usually, spironolactone (Aldactone) is used first, and then furosemide (Lasix) will be added
  • Antibiotics, if an infection develops
  • Limiting salt in the diet (no more than 1,500 mg/day of sodium)
  • Avoiding drinking alcohol

Procedures used for ascites that do not respond to medical treatment include:

Patients who develop end-stage liver disease, and whose ascites no longer respond to treatment will need a liver transplant.

Possible complications


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