Riedel's thyroiditis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Furqan M M. M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

If left untreated, patients with Riedel's thyroiditis may progress to develop complications such as painless neck pressure out of proportion to the size of the goiter, hoarseness, stridor, dysphagia, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, Horner's syndrome, and occlusive phlebitis. Prognosis is generally good and the disease-specific death rate ranges in frequency from 6-10% in the patients with Riedel's thyroiditis.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

The symptoms of Riedel's thyroiditis usually develop in the third to fifth decade of life and progresses slowly.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

  • Diagnosis of is often delayed for a variable period of time after the onset of clinical symptoms.
  • After the initial presentation, it has been observed that the process may stabilize or even regress.
  • If left untreated, patients with Riedel's thyroiditis may progress to develop dysphagia, stridor, painless neck pressure out of proportion to the size of the goiter, and hypothyroidism.

Complications

Prognosis

  • Prognosis is generally good and the disease-specific death rate ranges in frequency from 6-10% in patients with Riedel's thyroiditis.[13][14][8]

References

  1. Singer PA (1991). "Thyroiditis. Acute, subacute, and chronic". Med. Clin. North Am. 75 (1): 61–77. PMID 1987447.
  2. Groot, Leslie (2010). Endocrinology adult and pediatric : the thyroid gland. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders. ISBN 9780323240642.
  3. Heufelder AE, Hay ID (1995). "Further evidence for autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Riedel's invasive fibrous thyroiditis". J. Intern. Med. 238 (1): 85–6. PMID 7608652.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Sheu SY, Schmid KW (2003). "[Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland. Epidemiology, symptoms and morphology]". Pathologe (in German). 24 (5): 339–47. doi:10.1007/s00292-003-0628-7. PMID 12961022.
  5. Chopra D, Wool MS, Crosson A, Sawin CT (1978). "Riedel's struma associated with subacute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and hypoparathyroidism". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 46 (6): 869–71. doi:10.1210/jcem-46-6-869. PMID 263470.
  6. Kabalak T, Ozgen AG (2002). "Familial occurrence of subacute thyroiditis". Endocr. J. 49 (2): 207–9. PMID 12081240.
  7. 8.0 8.1 Fatourechi MM, Hay ID, McIver B, Sebo TJ, Fatourechi V (2011). "Invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel thyroiditis): the Mayo Clinic experience, 1976-2008". Thyroid. 21 (7): 765–72. doi:10.1089/thy.2010.0453. PMID 21568724.
  8. Yasmeen T, Khan S, Patel SG, Reeves WA, Gonsch FA, de Bustros A, Kaplan EL (2002). "Clinical case seminar: Riedel's thyroiditis: report of a case complicated by spontaneous hypoparathyroidism, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and Horner's syndrome". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (8): 3543–7. doi:10.1210/jcem.87.8.8752. PMID 12161472.
  9. Meijer S, Hoitsma HF, Scholtmeijer R (1976). "Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis in multifocal fibrosclerosis". Eur. Urol. 2 (5): 258–60. PMID 1009988.
  10. Meyer S, Hausman R (1976). "Occlusive phlebitis in multifocal fibrosclerosis". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 65 (3): 274–83. PMID 943929.
  11. Geissler B, Wagner T, Dorn R, Lindemann F (2001). "Extensive sterile abscess in an invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel's thyroiditis) caused by an occlusive vasculitis". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 24 (2): 111–5. doi:10.1007/BF03343824. PMID 11263468.
  12. "Riedel's Thyroiditis: A Clinical Review | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic".
  13. Schwaegerle SM, Bauer TW, Esselstyn CB (1988). "Riedel's thyroiditis". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 90 (6): 715–22. PMID 3057862.

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