Neurogranin

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neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3)
Identifiers
SymbolNRGN
Entrez4900
HUGO8000
OMIM602350
RefSeqNM_006176
UniProtQ92686
Other data
LocusChr. 11 q24

Neurogranin is a calmodulin-binding protein expressed primarily in the brain, particularly in dendritic spines, and participating in the protein kinase C signaling pathway. Neurogranin is the main postsynaptic protein regulating the availability of calmodulin, binding to it in the absence of calcium. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C lowers its binding ability. NRGN gene expression is controlled by thyroid hormones.[1] Human neurogranin consists of 78 amino acids.

One study tells of potential link of neurogranin gene to the heightened risk of schizophrenia in males,[2] another study gives evidence of lowered neurogranin immunoreactivity in the brains of people suffering from schizophrenia.[3]

Prior to its identification in the bovine and rat brain in 1991,[4] neurogranin was known as a putative protein kinase C-phosphorylated protein named p17. Human neurogranin was cloned in 1997 and turned out to be 96% identical to the rat protein.[5]

References

  1. Martínez de Arrieta C, Morte B, Coloma A, Bernal J (January 1999). "The human RC3 gene homolog, NRGN contains a thyroid hormone-responsive element located in the first intron". Endocrinology. 140 (1): 335–43. doi:10.1210/en.140.1.335. PMID 9886843.
  2. Ruano D, Aulchenko YS, Macedo A, Soares MJ, Valente J, Azevedo MH, Hutz MH, Gama CS, Lobato MI, Belmonte-de-Abreu P, Goodman AB, Pato C, Heutink P, Palha JA (January 2008). "Association of the gene encoding neurogranin with schizophrenia in males". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 42 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.10.008. PMID 17140601.
  3. Broadbelt K, Ramprasaud A, Jones LB (October 2006). "Evidence of altered neurogranin immunoreactivity in areas 9 and 32 of schizophrenic prefrontal cortex". Schizophrenia Research. 87 (1–3): 6–14. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.04.028. PMID 16797925.
  4. Baudier J, Deloulme JC, Van Dorsselaer A, Black D, Matthes HW (January 1991). "Purification and characterization of a brain-specific protein kinase C substrate, neurogranin (p17). Identification of a consensus amino acid sequence between neurogranin and neuromodulin (GAP43) that corresponds to the protein kinase C phosphorylation site and the calmodulin-binding domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (1): 229–37. PMID 1824695.
  5. Martínez de Arrieta C, Pérez Jurado L, Bernal J, Coloma A (April 1997). "Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the human neurogranin gene (NRGN)". Genomics. 41 (2): 243–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4622. PMID 9143500.

External links


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