Inorganic chemistry of carbon

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There is an immense number of distinct compounds that contain carbon atoms. Some sources suggest that this number is close to almost ten million known.[1] However, it is possible that the number is greater.

Organic compounds

Main article: Organic compound

Every organic compound contains at least one atom of carbon. The number of these compounds is immense and the described number of defined compounds is close to 10 million. However, an indefinitely larger number of such compounds are theoretically possible.

There are several organic compounds sometimes considered as inorganic: NH2COONH4, COCl2, CSCl2, CS(NH2)2, CO(NH2)2

Inorganic compounds

See also: Inorganic compounds by element#Carbon

There is a rich variety of carbon chemistry that does not fall within the realm of organic chemistry and is thus called inorganic carbon chemistry.

Compounds with other nonmetals

Perhaps the best known are the oxides of carbon, carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Other known oxides are the uncommon carbon suboxide, C3O2, the uncommon dicarbon monoxide, C2O and even the exotic carbon trioxide (CO3).

Other (binary) compounds of carbon with nonmetals include: CS2, β-C3N4, CBr4, CCl4, CF4, COF2, COS, H2C2B10H10,

Compounds with metals

Carbonates and bicarbonates
Main articles: Carbonic acid, Carbonate, and Bicarbonate

The only known acid that is derived from the oxides of carbon is the carbonic acid (H2CO3). Upon monodeprotonation of this acid, bicarbonates are formed, which can be further derpotonated to carbonates.

Here is a list of carbonates and bicarbonates: NH4HCO3, (NH4)2CO3, BaCO3, CdCO3, Cs2CO3, Ca(HCO3)3, CaCO3, Ce2(CO3)3, CoCO3, CuCO3, FeCO3, PbCO3, La2(CO3)3, Li2CO3, MgCO3, MnCO3, NiCO3, KHCO3, K2CO3, Ag2CO3, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, SrCO3, ZnCO3

Carbonyls
Main article: Carbonyl

Carbonyls are coordination complexes between transition metals and carbonyl ligands. Metal carbonyls are complexes that are formed with the neutral ligand CO. These complexes are covalent. Here is a list of some carbonyls: Cr(CO)6, Co2(CO)8, Fe(CO)5, Mn2(CO)10, Mo(CO)6, Ni(CO)4, W(CO)6,

Compounds contanining the CN group
Main articles: Cyanide, Cyanates, Thiocyanate, and Isocyanate

Other types of inorganic compounds include inorganic salts and complexes of the carbon-containing polyatomic ions cyanide, isocyanide, cyanate, thiocyanate.

NH4SCN, CaNCN, Co(SCN)2, CuCN, (HCNO)x NH2CN HCNO, (CN)2, BrCN, ClCN, HCN, KOCN, KCN, K3Fe(CN)6, K4Fe(CN)6, KSCN, Fe4(Fe(CN)6)3, AgCN, NaOCN, NaCN, Na3Fe(CN)5NO, NaSCN, (SCN)2,

Carbides
Main article: Carbide

Carbides are binary compounds of carbon with an element that is less electronegative than it. B4C, CaC2 SiC, TaC, TiC, WC,

Other

The known inorganic chemistry of the allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, and the fullerenes) blossomed with the discovery of buckminsterfullerene in 1985, as additional fullerenes and their various derivatives were discovered. One such class of derivatives is inclusion compounds, in which an ion is enclosed by the all-carbon shell of the fullerene. This inclusion is denoted by the "@" symbol. For example, an ion consisting of a lithium ion trapped within buckminsterfullerene would be denoted Li+@C60. As with any other ionic compound, this complex ion could in principle pair with a counterion to form a salt.

Alloys

There are several alloys that contain carbon of which the best known alloy is carbon steel (see category:steels)). Besides steel, other alloys based on iron and carbon are: anthracite iron, cast iron, pig iron, wrought iron, but also spiegeleisen (which contains also manganese). Stellite is an alloy of carbon with cobalt, chromium and tungsten. To some degree, these alloys could be considered carbides.

Formation of carbon compounds

In organic chemistry there are 3 important elements: Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen. Each of these elements have different kinds of bonds. Carbon atom has tetravalent bonds, Oxygen atoms divalent bonds and Hydrogen monovalent bonds.

References

  1. Chemistry Operations (December 15, 2003). Carbon. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.

Organic Chemistry by Abraham William Simpson

See also

CH He
CLi CBe CB CC CN CO CF Ne
CNa CMg CAl CSi CP CS CCl Ar
CK CCa CSc CTi CV CCr CMn CFe CCo CNi CCu CZn CGa CGe CAs CSe CBr Kr
CRb CSr CY CZr CNb CMo CTc CRu CRh CPd CAg CCd CIn CSn CSb CTe CI Xe
CCs CBa CHf CTa CW CRe COs CIr CPt CAu CHg CTl CPb CBi CPo CAt Rn
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa CU Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr


Chemical bonds to carbon
Core organic chemistry many uses in chemistry.
Academic research, but no widespread use Bond unknown / not assessed.
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