IgA nephropathy epidemiology and demographics
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IgA nephropathy is currently the most common cause of primary glomerulonephritis globally, and it is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis in the developed world. IgA nephropathy comprises approximately 10% of all biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in the USA, 20% of those in Europe and 40-50% of those in Asia. The kidney biopsies are not routinely performed for all patients with kidney diseases; hence, IgA nephropathy is perhaps under-diagnosed, and its true prevalence remains unknown.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- IgA nephropathy is currently the most common cause of primary glomerulonephritis globally. 
- IgA nephropathy is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis in the developed world.
- IgA nephropathy comprises approximately 10% of all biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in USA, 20% of those in Europe and 40-50% of those in Asia.
- The kidney biopsies are not routinely performed for all patients with kidney diseases; hence, IgA nephropathy is perhaps under-diagnosed, and its true prevalence remains unknown.
- In 2013, the incidence of IgA nephropathy was estimated to be 3.9–4.5 cases per 100,000 individuals in Japan.
- IgA nephropathy is found more commonly in Asians, Caucasians and people of Eastern Europe. It is very rare in Blacks and people of African descent.
- IgA nephropathy seems to be more common among males with a 2:1 male to female ratio for both children and adults.
- The studies from Japan report an equal male to female ratio.
- IgA nephropathy may present at any age although, it can occur in childhood.
- IgA nephropathy is often found mostly in adult males in the second to third decade of life.
- It is a frequently diagnosed glomerular disease in both the pediatric and the adult population.
- The median age ranges between 30-40 years. Recently, IgA Nephropathy has shown an increase in incidence among patients in older age groups.
- Although the classical presentation of IgA nephropathy is gross hematuria in a young male patient following an upper respiratory tract infection, such findings are in fact only seen in 30-40% of the patients. Atypical presentations are more common among older patients.
- It is also noteworthy, that some studies have shown incidence of IgA nephropathy in about 3 -16% healthy individuals .
- The renal biopsy of the healthy individuals showed evidence of immunogenic IgA deposit in the renal glomeruli without any evidence of kidney disease or systemic manifestation.
- IgA nephropathy is highly prevalent in the Pacific Rim in Europe and North America and in the far East Asia, namely China and Japan.
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