Hirsutism causes

Jump to: navigation, search

Hirsutism Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Hirsutism from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

CT

MRI

Echocardiography or Ultrasonography

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Pharmacological therapy
Non-pharmacological therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Hirsutism causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Hirsutism causes

CDC on Hirsutism causes

Hirsutism causes in the news

Blogs on Hirsutism causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hirsutism causes

Risk calculators and risk factors for Hirsutism causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: ; Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [2] Rasam Hajiannasab M.D.[3]

Overview

The cause of hirsutism can be either an increased level of androgens (male hormones) or an oversensitivity of hair follicles to androgens, and the most common cause is polycystic ovary syndrome. Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the pigmentation of hair. Other symptoms associated with a high level of male hormones include acne and deepening of the voice and increased muscle mass. Growing evidence implicates high circulating levels of insulin in women to the development of hirsutism. This theory is consistent with the observation that obese (and thus presumably insulin resistant hyperinsulinemic) women are at high risk of becoming hirsute. Further, treatments that lower insulin levels will lead to a reduction in hirsutism.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. There are no known life threatening causes of hirsutism.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Insulin resistance syndrome
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Dermatomyositis
Drug Side Effect Aripiprazole, bimatoprost, bupropion, carbamazepine, clonazepam, corticosteroids, cyclosporine, danazol, dantrolene, desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol, dexamethasone, diazoxide, donepezil, estrogens, eszopiclone, ethosuximide, ethotoin, ethynodiol diacetate and ethinyl estradiol, fluoxetine, fluoxymesterone, gestrinone, interferon alfa, isotretinoin, lamotrigine, leuprolide, methyltestosterone, mycophenolate, olanzapine, oxandrolone, oxymetholone, paroxetine, phenytoin, prednisolone, pregabalin, progestin, selegiline, tacrolimus, testosterone, tiagabine, trazodone, valproic acid, vasodilators, venlafaxine, zonisamide
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Acromegaly, adrenal adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, adrenal tumor, arrhenoblastoma, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance syndrome, luteoma, pituitary tumor, polycystic ovary syndrome, porphyria cutanea tarda, Stein-Leventhal syndrome, testosterone
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, 21-hydroxylase deficiency, Achard-Thiers syndrome, alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency, Ambras syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, Hurler syndrome, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, Miller-Dieker syndrome, nodulosis-arthropathy-osteolysis syndrome, Turner syndrome
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency, cortisone reductase deficiency, Hurler syndrome, i-cell disease, porphyria cutanea tarda
Obstetric/Gynecologic Ovarian cancer, ovarian hyperthecosis, ovarian tumor, polycystic ovary syndrome, Stein-Leventhal syndrome
Oncologic Adrenal adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, adrenal tumor, arrhenoblastoma, luteoma, ovarian cancer, ovarian tumor, pituitary tumor, testicular tumor
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Dermatomyositis, insulin resistance syndrome
Sexual Ovarian cancer, ovarian hyperthecosis, ovarian tumor, polycystic ovary syndrome
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Idiopathic hirsutism

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Klotz RK, Müller-Holzner E, Fessler S, Reimer DU, Zervomanolakis I, Seeber B; et al. (2010). "Leydig-cell-tumor of the ovary that responded to GnRH-analogue administration - case report and review of the literature". Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 118 (5): 291–7. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1225351. PMID 20198556.
  2. Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR (2004). "Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89 (2): 453–62. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031122. PMID 14764747.
  3. Goldman JM, Kapadia LJ (1991). "Virilization in a postmenopausal woman due to ovarian stromal hyperthecosis". Postgrad Med J. 67 (785): 304–6. PMC 2399029. PMID 2062784.