Cryptococcosis pathophysiology

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Cryptococcosis Microchapters

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Serge Korjian M.D.; Yazan Daaboul, M.D.

Overview

Infective cryptococcal species are ubiquitous and natural exposure by inhalation is very common. Cryptococci are intracellular pathogens. Once they are phagocytosed, they germinate and multiply within the macrophages. The immune response to cryptococcal infection is highly dependent on host T-cell function, interferon-γ and TNF-α signaling. Microscopically, Cryptococci are characterized by a thick mucopolysaccharide capsule with a refractile center.

Pathophysiology

Transmission

Virulence factors

Pathogenesis

Host response

Dissemination

Microscopic Pathology

Cryptococcosis of the lung in patient with AIDS (Mucicarmine stain), source: wikipedia.org
Cryptococcosis in the cerebrospinal fluid with light India ink staining, source: wikipedia.org



Cryptococcosis (PAS stain)

References

  1. Wang CY, Wu HD, Hsueh PR (2005). "Nosocomial transmission of cryptococcosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (12): 1271–2. doi:10.1056/NEJM200503243521225. PMID 15788512.
  2. Jarvis JN, Harrison TS (2008). "Pulmonary cryptococcosis". Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 29 (2): 141–50. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1063853. PMID 18365996.
  3. Alspaugh JA (2015). "Virulence mechanisms and Cryptococcus neoformans pathogenesis". Fungal Genet. Biol. 78: 55–8. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2014.09.004. PMC 4370805. PMID 25256589.
  4. Goldman D, Lee SC, Casadevall A (1994). "Pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the rat". Infect. Immun. 62 (11): 4755–61. PMC 303183. PMID 7927751.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mansour MK, Reedy JL, Tam JM, Vyas JM (2014). "Macrophage Cryptococcus interactions: an update". Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 8 (1): 109–115. doi:10.1007/s12281-013-0165-7. PMC 3958962. PMID 24660045.
  6. Sionov E, Chang YC, Kwon-Chung KJ (2013). "Azole heteroresistance in Cryptococcus neoformans: emergence of resistant clones with chromosomal disomy in the mouse brain during fluconazole treatment". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57 (10): 5127–30. doi:10.1128/AAC.00694-13. PMC 3811407. PMID 23836187.
  7. Brizendine KD, Baddley JW, Pappas PG (2011). "Pulmonary cryptococcosis". Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 32 (6): 727–34. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1295720. PMID 22167400.
  8. May RC, Stone NR, Wiesner DL, Bicanic T, Nielsen K (2015). "Cryptococcus: from environmental saprophyte to global pathogen". Nat Rev Microbiol. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2015.6. PMID 26685750.
  9. Zerpa R, Huicho L, Guillén A (1996). "Modified India ink preparation for Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens". J Clin Microbiol. 34 (9): 2290–1. PMC 229234. PMID 8862601.
  10. Fungi. Libre Pathology (2015). http://librepathology.org/wiki/index.php/Fungi#Cryptococcosis. Accessed on December 31, 2015.

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