Cryptococcosis classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Serge Korjian M.D.; Yazan Daaboul, M.D.

Overview

Cryptococcosis may be classified based on the site of infection. The clinical syndrome can be classified as pulmonaryCNS, or disseminated cryptococcosis. Another approach to the classification is based upon the variety of species of the Cryptococcus causative organism, including Cryptococcus neoformansCryptococcus gattii, and other, rarer species.

Classification

Cryptococcosis may be classified based on the site of infection (the clinical syndrome), or the species of the Cryptococcus causative organism.

Site of Infection

  • Pulmonary Cryptococcosis
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) Cryptococcosis
  • Disseminated Cryptococcosis

Causative Species

(a) Cryptococcus neoformans

  • Cryptococcus neoformans v. neoformans (serotype D)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans v. grubii (serotype A)

(b) Cryptococcus gattii

(c) Cryptococcus uniguttulatus

(d) Cryptococcus laurentii

(e) Cryptococcus albidus

References

  1. Núñez M, Peacock JE, Chin R (2000). "Pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent host. Therapy with oral fluconazole: a report of four cases and a review of the literature". Chest. 118 (2): 527–34. PMID 10936151.
  2. Velagapudi R, Hsueh YP, Geunes-Boyer S, Wright JR, Heitman J (2009). "Spores as infectious propagules of Cryptococcus neoformans". Infect Immun. 77 (10): 4345–55. doi:10.1128/IAI.00542-09. PMC 2747963. PMID 19620339.
  3. Chuck SL, Sande MA (1989). "Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". N Engl J Med. 321 (12): 794–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM198909213211205. PMID 2671735.
  4. C. neoformans Infection Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/cryptococcosis-neoformans/statistics.html. Accessed on December 31, 2015
  5. Chuang YM, Ho YC, Chang HT, Yu CJ, Yang PC, Hsueh PR (2008). "Disseminated cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected patients". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27 (4): 307–10. doi:10.1007/s10096-007-0430-1. PMID 18157678.
  6. Naka W, Masuda M, Konohana A, Shinoda T, Nishikawa T (1995). "Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis and Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D." Clin Exp Dermatol. 20 (3): 221–5. PMID 7671417.
  7. Cogliati M (2013). "Global Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii: An Atlas of the Molecular Types". Scientifica (Cairo). 2013: 675213. doi:10.1155/2013/675213. PMC 3820360. PMID 24278784.
  8. Khayhan K, Hagen F, Pan W, Simwami S, Fisher MC, Wahyuningsih R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Ikeda R, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Khan Z, Ip M, Imran D, Sjam R, Sriburee P, Liao W, Chaicumpar K, Vuddhakul V, Meyer W, Trilles L, van Iersel LJ, Meis JF, Klaassen CH, Boekhout T (2013). "Geographically structured populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia correlate with HIV status and show a clonal population structure". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e72222. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072222. PMC 3760895. PMID 24019866.
  9. Datta K, Bartlett KH, Baer R, Byrnes E, Galanis E, Heitman J; et al. (2009). "Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the United States". Emerg Infect Dis. 15 (8): 1185–91. doi:10.3201/eid1508.081384. PMC 2815957. PMID 19757550.
  10. McCurdy LH, Morrow JD (2001). "Ventriculitis due to Cryptococcus uniguttulatus". South Med J. 94 (1): 65–6. PMID 11213945.
  11. Shankar EM, Kumarasamy N, Bella D, Renuka S, Kownhar H, Suniti S, Rajan R, Rao UA (2006). "Pneumonia and pleural effusion due to Cryptococcus laurentii in a clinically proven case of AIDS". Can. Respir. J. 13 (5): 275–8. PMC 2683308. PMID 16896431.
  12. Johnson LB, Bradley SF, Kauffman CA (1998). "Fungaemia due to Cryptococcus laurentii and a review of non-neoformans cryptococcaemia". Mycoses. 41 (7–8): 277–80. PMID 9861831.

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