Template:Chembox new Nepetalactone is a lactone chemical compound first isolated in the plant catnip, Nepeta cataria (apparently named after the Italian town of Nepete). It was first isolated in 1941 using steam distillation.
Nepetalactone's structure is two rings – a cyclopentane and a cyclic ester, making a terpenoid. Its empirical formula is C10H14O2. The structure and the effect of the compound is similar to valepotriates. There are a number of isomers of nepetalactone.
As 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone it is the active chemical in Nepeta cataria that causes its characteristic effect on cats. Around 75% of cats are affected; susceptibility is gene-linked. The chemical interacts as a vapour at the olfactory epithelium.