Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

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Template:Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ahmad Muneeb, MBBS[2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Intraparencymal Hematoma, Intracerebral Hematoma, Parenchymal Hemorrhages, Cerebral Brain Hemorrhages; Hemorrhage, Cerebral Brain Hemorrhage, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebrum Parenchymal Hemorrhage, Cerebral Hemorrhages, Cerebrum Hemorrhages;, Cerebral Hemorrhages.


Overview

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage is one of the common causes of stroke. Although less prevalent than ischemia, intraparenchymal hemorrhage has the highest mortality rate among all the causes of stroke. It is associated with multiple risk factors, with hypertension being the most common among them. It can be classified into primary or secondary type depending upon the underlying etiology. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurs more commonly in the older population. Diagnosis is made using Ct-scan or MRI brain. Owing to its poor prognosis, early diagnosis and management are of paradigm importance.

Historical prespective

Classification


Pathophysiology

Causes

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Differentiating intraparenchymal hemorrhage from other Diseases

  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage must be differentiated from ischemic stroke. But it is difficult to differentiate between the 2 based on clinical features. Therefore, neuroimaging should always be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Age

Gender

Race

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic criteria

  • There are no specific diagnostic criteria.

History and symptoms

Common symptoms of intraparenchymal hemorrhage include:[9][16]

Physical examination

Physical examination may be remarkable for:[25]. [26][16] [27]

Laboratory findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other imaging findings

Other diagnostic studies


Treatment

Medical Therapy


Surgery

Prevention

References

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