Hypopharyngeal cancer risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gertrude Djouka, M.D.[2], Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [3]


Common risk factors in the development of hypopharyngeal cancer are tobacco use, and abuse of alcohol consumption.

Risk Factors

Common Risk Factors

Common risk factors for the development of hypopharyngeal cancer include[1]:

Less Common Risk Factors

Less common risk factors for development of hypopharangeal cancer include:


  1. Maasland, Denise HE; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Schouten, Leo J (2014). "Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study". BMC Cancer. 14 (1). doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-187. ISSN 1471-2407.
  2. Novacek, Gottfried (2006). Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1 (1): 36. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-36. ISSN 1750-1172. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Toland, Amanda Ewart; Joo, Young-Hoon; Lee, Youn-Soo; Cho, Kwang-Jae; Park, Jun-Ook; Nam, In-Chul; Kim, Chung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Min-Sik (2013). "Characteristics and Prognostic Implications of High-Risk HPV-Associated Hypopharyngeal Cancers". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e78718. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078718. ISSN 1932-6203.
  4. Guha, Neela; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt (2014). "Betel quid chewing and the risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: A meta-analysis with implications for cancer control". International Journal of Cancer. 135 (6): 1433–1443. doi:10.1002/ijc.28643. ISSN 0020-7136.
  5. Auluck A, Hislop G, Poh C, Zhang L, Rosin MP (2009). "Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening". Rural Remote Health. 9 (2): 1118. PMC 2726113. PMID 19445556.
  6. Langevin SM, O'Sullivan MH, Valerio JL, Pawlita M, Applebaum KM, Eliot M, McClean MD, Kelsey KT (December 2013). "Occupational asbestos exposure is associated with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in men from the greater Boston area". Occup Environ Med. 70 (12): 858–63. doi:10.1136/oemed-2013-101528. PMC 4227396. PMID 24142981.