Hyperparathyroidism other diagnostic studies
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Other diagnostic study useful for preoperative localization of hyper-functioning parathyroid glands include super selective venous sampling. Another diagnostic study include measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) by using a modified sensitive assay (immunoradiometric assay). IOPTH is beneficial for predicting long term surgical outcomes.
Other Diagnostic Studies
Super Selective Venous Sampling
- Real-time super selective venous sampling (sSVS) is the most common invasive modality for preoperative localization of hyper-functioning parathyroid glands.
- Real-time sSVS is a highly sensitive and specific technique used when traditional non-invasive imaging studies fail to localize hyper-functioning parathyroid glands preoperatively in patients with persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism.
- Patients with a 2-fold gradient or more in cervical vein drainage locations (inferior, middle, and superior thyroid veins; thymic and vertebral veins) compared to the baseline value in the iliac vein are considered for exploration.
Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH)
- Measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) by using a modified sensitive assay (immunoradiometric assay) is beneficial for predicting long term surgical outcomes. Post-surgical success is defined as postoperative normocalcemia.
- Patients with hyperparathyroidism due to lesion in a single gland shows a rapid decline of intact parathyroid hormone after resection. The levels of intact parathyroid hormone becomes undetectable within hours of resection.
- After resection of parathyroid adenoma, intact parathyroid hormone levels decrease by 85% in first 15 minutes. This fall in parathyroid hormone levels is due to its short half-life.
- The fall in parathyroid hormone level is significantly more after resection of parathyroid adenoma than after resection of parathyroid hyperplasia.
- A fall in level of parathyroid hormone 15 minutes after resection of hyper-functioning parathyroid glands may help differentiating single gland disease from multiple gland disease.
- IOPTH monitoring has a predictive accuracy of 97%. 
Technique for intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring
- When the enlarged parathyroid gland is first visualized intraoperatively, a baseline sample should be obtained.
- The baseline sample should never be obtained before induction of anesthesia. It is due to the fact that an increase in parathyroid hormone level may be observed after general anesthesia.
- After excision of enlarged gland, 2nd and 3rd samples are collected at 5 and 10 minutes respectively.
- Several criteria are used for predicting post-operative normocalcemia including:
- A decline in parathyroid hormone levels of ≥60% from baseline value at 15 minutes.
- A decline in parathyroid hormone levels of ≥50% from baseline value at 10 minutes.
- ↑ Lebastchi AH, Aruny JE, Donovan PI, Quinn CE, Callender GG, Carling T; et al. (2015). "Real-Time Super Selective Venous Sampling in Remedial Parathyroid Surgery". J Am Coll Surg. 220 (6): 994–1000. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.01.004. PMID 25868412.
- ↑ Sugg SL, Fraker DL, Alexander R, Doppman JL, Miller DL, Chang R; et al. (1993). "Prospective evaluation of selective venous sampling for parathyroid hormone concentration in patients undergoing reoperations for primary hyperparathyroidism". Surgery. 114 (6): 1004–9, discussion 1009-10. PMID 8256203.
- ↑ Powell AC, Alexander HR, Chang R, Marx SJ, Skarulis M, Pingpank JF; et al. (2009). "Reoperation for parathyroid adenoma: a contemporary experience". Surgery. 146 (6): 1144–55. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2009.09.015. PMC 3467310. PMID 19958942.
- ↑ Nussbaum SR, Thompson AR, Hutcheson KA, Gaz RD, Wang CA (1988). "Intraoperative measurement of parathyroid hormone in the surgical management of hyperparathyroidism". Surgery. 104 (6): 1121–7. PMID 3194839.
- ↑ Bergenfelz A, Isaksson A, Ahrén B (1994). "Intraoperative monitoring of intact PTH during surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism". Langenbecks Arch Chir. 379 (1): 50–3. PMID 8145618.
- ↑ Irvin III, George L.; Dembrow, Victor D.; Prudhomme, David L. (December 1993). "Clinical usefulness of an intraoperative "quick parathyroid hormone" assay". Surgery. 114 (6): 1019–1023.
- ↑ Bergenfelz A, Isaksson A, Lindblom P, Westerdahl J, Tibblin S (1998). "Measurement of parathyroid hormone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing first and reoperative surgery". Br J Surg. 85 (8): 1129–32. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2168.1998.00824.x. PMID 9718013.
- ↑ Boggs JE, Irvin GL, Molinari AS, Deriso GT (1996). "Intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring as an adjunct to parathyroidectomy" (PDF). Surgery. 120 (6): 954–8. doi:10.1016/S0039-6060(96)80040-7. PMID 8957480.
- ↑ Westerdahl J, Lindblom P, Bergenfelz A (2002). "Measurement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone predicts long-term operative success". Arch Surg. 137 (2): 186–90. doi:10.1001/archsurg.137.2.186. PMID 11822958.