Gallstone disease risk factors
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Common risk factors in the development of gallstone disease include age, sex, pregnancy, and oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. Less common risk factors include rapid weight loss, prolonged total parenteral nutrition and hepatic and biliary cirrhosis.
Common Risk Factors
- Common risk factors in the development of gallstone disease include:
- Age is the most important risk factor.
- The most common age for developing gallstones was found to be between ages 40 - 69 years.
- Cholelithiasis rarely exists in children unless in a hemolytic state.
- A higher incidence is noted in women across all age groups.
- Gallstone disease is common amongst Pima Indians, North Americans and Chileans. Japanese have the lowest incidence.
- Cholesterol gallstone incidence in pregnant women is very common, paarticularly in multiparous women.
- Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
- Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus will cause motility problems in the gallbladder.
- Obesity is related to a high fat or high cholesterol diet.
Less Common Risk Factors
- Less common risk factorsin the development of gallstone disease include:
- Rapidly weight loss and gastric bypass surgery
- Long-term octreotide
- Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
- Drug induced e.g. Ceftriaxone
- Prolonged fasting
- Presence of Crohn's disease
- Cystic fibrosis
- Liver cirrhosis
- Extensive bowel resection
- Spinal cord injury
- Use of medications such as
- ↑ Barbara L, Sama C, Morselli Labate AM, Taroni F, Rusticali AG, Festi D, Sapio C, Roda E, Banterle C, Puci A (1987). "A population study on the prevalence of gallstone disease: the Sirmione Study". Hepatology. 7 (5): 913–7. PMID 3653855.
- ↑ Maurer KR, Everhart JE, Ezzati TM, Johannes RS, Knowler WC, Larson DL, Sanders R, Shawker TH, Roth HP (1989). "Prevalence of gallstone disease in Hispanic populations in the United States". Gastroenterology. 96 (2 Pt 1): 487–92. PMID 2642879.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Sampliner RE, Bennett PH, Comess LJ, Rose FA, Burch TA (1970). "Gallbladder disease in pima indians. Demonstration of high prevalence and early onset by cholecystography". N. Engl. J. Med. 283 (25): 1358–64. doi:10.1056/NEJM197012172832502. PMID 5481754.
- ↑ Attili AF, Carulli N, Roda E, Barbara B, Capocaccia L, Menotti A, Okoliksanyi L, Ricci G, Capocaccia R, Festi D (1995). "Epidemiology of gallstone disease in Italy: prevalence data of the Multicenter Italian Study on Cholelithiasis (M.I.COL.)". Am. J. Epidemiol. 141 (2): 158–65. PMID 7817971.
- ↑ Valdivieso V, Covarrubias C, Siegel F, Cruz F (1993). "Pregnancy and cholelithiasis: pathogenesis and natural course of gallstones diagnosed in early puerperium". Hepatology. 17 (1): 1–4. PMID 8423030.
- ↑ Maringhini A, Ciambra M, Baccelliere P, Raimondo M, Orlando A, Tinè F, Grasso R, Randazzo MA, Barresi L, Gullo D, Musico M, Pagliaro L (1993). "Biliary sludge and gallstones in pregnancy: incidence, risk factors, and natural history". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (2): 116–20. PMID 8512160.
- ↑ Apstein MD, Dalecki-Chipperfield K (1987). "Spinal cord injury is a risk factor for gallstone disease". Gastroenterology. 92 (4): 966–8. PMID 3557002.
- ↑ Quigley EM, Marsh MN, Shaffer JL, Markin RS (1993). "Hepatobiliary complications of total parenteral nutrition". Gastroenterology. 104 (1): 286–301. PMID 8419252.
- ↑ Hussaini SH, Murphy GM, Kennedy C, Besser GM, Wass JA, Dowling RH (1994). "The role of bile composition and physical chemistry in the pathogenesis of octreotide-associated gallbladder stones". Gastroenterology. 107 (5): 1503–13. PMID 7926514.
- ↑ Caroli-Bosc FX, Le Gall P, Pugliese P, Delabre B, Caroli-Bosc C, Demarquay JF, Delmont JP, Rampal P, Montet JC (2001). "Role of fibrates and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in gallstone formation: epidemiological study in an unselected population". Dig. Dis. Sci. 46 (3): 540–4. PMID 11318529.
- ↑ Shiffman ML, Keith FB, Moore EW (1990). "Pathogenesis of ceftriaxone-associated biliary sludge. In vitro studies of calcium-ceftriaxone binding and solubility". Gastroenterology. 99 (6): 1772–8. PMID 2227290.