Gallstone disease epidemiology and demographics
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hadeel Maksoud M.D.
The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that 630 per 100,000 and 1420 per 100,000 men and women aged 20 to 74 respectively in the United States had gallstone disease. In the United States, every year about 1-3% (3 to 9 million people/year) of the population develop gallstones. Gallstone disease has an overall higher incidence in females than males of the Caucasian, Hispanic and Native American nations. Whilst a lower incidence was found in Eastern European, African American, and Japanese populations.
Epidemiology and Demographics
The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that 630 per 100,000 and 1420 per 100,000 men and women aged 20 to 74 respectively in the United States had gallstone disease.
- In the United States, every year about 1-3% (3 to 9 million people/year) of the population develop gallstones.
- The incidence of choledocholithiasis is higher internationally, mainly because of parasitic infestation with liver flukes such as Clonorchis sinensis not found in the United States.
- Patients of age groups between 20 - 74 develop gallstone disease.
- The most common age group is between 40-69 years of age.
- Gallstone disease usually affects individuals of the Western Caucasian, Hispanic and Native American races.
- Eastern European, African American and Japanese individuals are less likely to develop Gallstone disease.
|Incidence of Gallstone disease according to race|
|Race||Gender (percentage incidence per 100,000)|
- Females are more commonly affected by gallstone disease than males.
- This may be due to increased estrogen levels and the use of oral contraceptive pills within the female population, which increase biliary cholesterol secretion.
- The female to male ratio is approximately 2.5 to 1.
|Incidence of Gallstone disease|
|Age group||Gender (Per 100,000)|
|Age 20 - 74||1420||630|
- In Japanese men of the Sumo wrestling profession, a high incidence of gallstones was found with an increasing body mass index.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Everhart JE, Khare M, Hill M, Maurer KR (1999). "Prevalence and ethnic differences in gallbladder disease in the United States". Gastroenterology. 117 (3): 632–9. PMID 10464139.
- ↑ Halldestam I, Kullman E, Borch K (2009). "Incidence of and potential risk factors for gallstone disease in a general population sample". Br J Surg. 96 (11): 1315–22. doi:10.1002/bjs.6687. PMID 19847878.
- ↑ TORVIK A, HOIVIK B (1960). "Gallstones in an autopsy series. Incidence, complications, and correlations with carcinoma of the gallbladder". Acta Chir Scand. 120: 168–74. PMID 13777615.
- ↑ Zahor A, Sternby NH, Kagan A, Uemura K, Vanecek R, Vichert AM (1974). "Frequency of cholelithiasis in Prague and Malmö. An autopsy study". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 9 (1): 3–7. PMID 4453803.
- ↑ Brett M, Barker DJ (1976). "The world distribution of gallstones". Int J Epidemiol. 5 (4): 335–41. PMID 1010661.
- ↑ Lindström CG (1977). "Frequency of gallstone disease in a well-defined Swedish population. A prospective necropsy study in Malmö". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 12 (3): 341–6. PMID 866998.
- ↑ Sampliner RE, Bennett PH, Comess LJ, Rose FA, Burch TA (1970). "Gallbladder disease in pima indians. Demonstration of high prevalence and early onset by cholecystography". N. Engl. J. Med. 283 (25): 1358–64. doi:10.1056/NEJM197012172832502. PMID 5481754.
- ↑ Attili AF, Carulli N, Roda E, Barbara B, Capocaccia L, Menotti A, Okoliksanyi L, Ricci G, Capocaccia R, Festi D (1995). "Epidemiology of gallstone disease in Italy: prevalence data of the Multicenter Italian Study on Cholelithiasis (M.I.COL.)". Am. J. Epidemiol. 141 (2): 158–65. PMID 7817971.
- ↑ Thistle JL, Eckhart KL, Nensel RE, Nobrega FT, Poehling GG, Reimer M, Schoenfield LJ (1971). "Prevalence of gallbladder disease among Chippewa Indians". Mayo Clin. Proc. 46 (9): 603–8. PMID 5096596.
- ↑ Williams CN, Johnston JL, Weldon KL (1977). "Prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in Canadian Micmac Indian women". Can Med Assoc J. 117 (7): 758–60. PMC 1880087. PMID 907946.
- ↑ WILBUR RS, BOLT RJ (1959). "Incidence of gall bladder disease in normal men". Gastroenterology. 36 (2): 251–5. PMID 13620038.
- ↑ Wang HH, Liu M, Clegg DJ, Portincasa P, Wang DQ (2009). "New insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of estrogen on cholesterol gallstone formation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1791 (11): 1037–47. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.06.006. PMC 2756670. PMID 19589396.
- ↑ Kodama H, Kono S, Todoroki I, Honjo S, Sakurai Y, Wakabayashi K, Nishiwaki M, Hamada H, Nishikawa H, Koga H, Ogawa S, Nakagawa K (1999). "Gallstone disease risk in relation to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in Japanese men". Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 23 (2): 211–6. PMID 10078858.