Commotio cordis physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maryam Hadipour, M.D.[2]


Immediately after the incident, there may not be any obvious signs of chest trauma, such as bruises. Individuals with commotio cordis are generally appeared to be unresponsive, apneic, cyanotic, pulseless without an audible heartbeat.

Physical examination

The physical examination of a patient with commotio cordis is crucial for diagnosis and management. However, it is important to note that physical examination alone may not always be sufficient to detect all injuries associated with commotio cordis.

  • At the time of the incident, there may not be any obvious signs of chest trauma, such as bruises or any other warning signs of more severe conditions.


  1. Abrunzo TJ (November 1991). "Commotio cordis. The single, most common cause of traumatic death in youth baseball". Am J Dis Child. 145 (11): 1279–82. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160110071023. PMID 1951221.
  2. Guenette JA, Diep TT, Koehle MS, Foster GE, Richards JC, Sheel AW (October 2004). "Acute hypoxic ventilatory response and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in men and women". Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 143 (1): 37–48. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2004.07.004. PMID 15477171.
  3. Quinn TA, Jin H, Lee P, Kohl P (August 2017). "Mechanically Induced Ectopy via Stretch-Activated Cation-Nonselective Channels Is Caused by Local Tissue Deformation and Results in Ventricular Fibrillation if Triggered on the Repolarization Wave Edge (Commotio Cordis)". Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 10 (8): e004777. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.116.004777. PMC 5555388. PMID 28794084.

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