Cholera epidemiology and demographics
Cholera epidemiology and demographics On the Web
American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Cholera epidemiology and demographics
Risk calculators and risk factors for Cholera epidemiology and demographics
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editors-In-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. , Tarek Nafee, M.D. , Priyamvada Singh, MBBS Ahmed Younes M.B.B.CH 
In 2015, 172,454 cases and 1,304 deaths of cholera were reported to WHO worldwide. Outbreaks continued to affect several countries. Overall, 41% of cases were reported from Africa, 37% from Asia, and 21% from the Americas. In the early 1980s, mortality rates are believed to exceeded 3 million deaths a year. It is difficult to calculate exact numbers of cases, as many go unreported due to concerns that an outbreak may have a negative impact on the tourism of a country. Cholera remains both epidemic and endemic in many areas of the world. Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen some places but not others. Lack of adequate treatment of human feces and/or drinking water greatly facilitates the spread of cholera. Bodies of water can serve as a reservoir of the disease. Seafood shipped over long distances can also spread the disease. Cases of cholera were not observed in the Americas for most of the 20th century, thought the disease reappeared towards the end of that century and seems likely to persist.
2017 Yemen outbreak
|Date||Cases (confirmed and suspected)||Deaths||More details|
|June 11th, 2017||101,820||791 (0.7%)||
|June 25th, 2017||200,000||1300 (0.65%)||
|July 2nd, 2017||246,000||1500 (0.6%)||
|July 10th, 2017||297,438||1706 (0.57%)||
|July 16th, 2017||326,082||1,743 (0.53%)||
|July 22nd, 2017||462, 545||1817 (0.39%)||
|July 29th, 2017||408,583||1,885 (0.46%)||
|August 5th, 2017||453,175||1,930 (0.42%)||
|August 12th, 2017||473,701||1,953 (0.41%)||
|September 5th, 2017||607,065||2,047 (0.34%)||
|September 29th, 2017||754,373||2,119 (0.28%)|
Epidemiology and Demographics
- In 2015, 172,454 cases and 1,304 deaths of cholera were reported to WHO worldwide. Outbreaks continued to affect several countries.
- Overall, 41% of cases were reported from Africa, 37% from Asia, and 21% from the Americas.
- Worldwide, cholera affects an estimated 1.4 to 4.3 million people and causes 28,000 to 142,000 deaths a year as of 2012.
Origin and Spread
Cholera was originally endemic to the Indian subcontinent, with the Ganges River likely serving as a contamination reservoir. It spread by trade routes (both land- and sea-based) to Russia, then to Western Europe, and from Europe to North America. Cholera is no longer considered an issue in Europe and North America, due to filtering and chlorination of the water supply.
Cholera occurs equally in males and females.
- In non-endemic areas, cholera occurs equally in all age groups.
- In endemic regions, children older than the age of 2 years are most commonly infected which cholera. Illness is uncommon before children reach 2 years of age, likely due to passive immunity.
Cholera in the United States
In the United States, the occurrence of cholera is very low (0-5 cases per year) and is usually due to ingestion of contaminated food or infection during international travel. There has been a modest increase in imported cases since 1991 related to travel and ongoing epidemics.
Cholera in the Developing World
The highest incidencce of cholera in the developing world occurs in the following regions:
- Africa: Zambia, Mozambique, Liberia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Niger
- Asia: Indonesia, Bangladesh, India
- The Americas: Dominican Republic, Haiti
- The Middle East: Yemen
Case Fatality Rates
- In 2015, the case fatality rates (CFRs) for cholera ranged from 0.0% to 11.7%; globally, the overall CFR was 0.8%.
- CFRs >1% were reported by 15 countries.
- Of these 15 countries, CFR >5% were reported in Myanmar and Niger.
- In Yemen, the case-fatality rate is reported to be between 4% to 5%.
- The average case fatality rate for Europe and the Americas is estimated to be around 1%.
- At the Treatment Center of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, less than 1% of patients with severe dehydration die.
- In Africa, a marked decline in case fatality rates has reported since 1970.
- in South America, low case fatality rates have been achieved.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. http://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/cholera/en/ Accessed on October 5th, 2016
- ↑ Sack DA, Sack RB, Chaignat CL (2006). "Getting serious about cholera". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (7): 649–51. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068144. PMID 16914700. Unknown parameter
- ↑ Blake, PA (1993). "Epidemiology of cholera in the Americas". Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 22 (3): 639–60. PMID 7691740.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 "WHO | Number of suspected cholera cases reaches 100 000 in Yemen".
- ↑ "Yemen cholera cases pass the 100,000 mark: WHO | Reuters".
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 "WHO | Statement from UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake and WHO Director-General Margaret Chan on the cholera outbreak in Yemen as suspected cases exceed 200,000".
- ↑ "Yemen's cholera epidemic is worst on record: Oxfam | Yemen News | Al Jazeera".
- ↑ "WHO | Yemen crisis".
- ↑ "Yemen cholera toll rises to 1,992: WHO | Business Standard News".
- ↑ "WHO | Statement by UNICEF Executive Director, Anthony Lake, WFP Executive Director, David Beasley and WHO Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, following their joint visit to Yemen".
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 "WHO EMRO | Situation reports | Yemen-infocus | Yemen, WHO EMRO | Situation reports | Yemen-infocus | Yemen".
- ↑ "Yemen's civil war turns country into cholera breeding ground - ABC News".
- ↑ "Yemen's cholera epidemic hits 600,000, confounding expectations | Reuters".
- ↑ "Yemen cholera outbreak set to be worst on record | The Independent".
- ↑ "Yemen cholera cases could hit 1 million by year-end: Red Cross | Reuters".
- ↑ World Health Organization. Cholera. (2016) http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/ Accessed on October 5th,2016
- ↑ Ali M, Lopez AL, You YA, et al. The global burden of cholera. Bulletin World Health Organization 2012; 90: 209–18A.
- ↑ Centers for Disease Control and prevention. Sources of Infection & Risk Factors. http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/infection-sources.html Accessed on October 5th, 2016
- ↑ World Health Organization. Cholera Emergencies preparedness, response. http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/disease/cholera/en/
- ↑ World Health Organization. Cholera Global Health Observatory Map Gallery http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/app/searchResults.aspx
- ↑ World Heath Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO) 2016. dathttp://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/cholera/case_fatality_rate_text/en