Chloride shift

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:WikiDoc Cardiology News

WikiDoc Resources for Chloride shift


Most recent articles on Chloride shift

Most cited articles on Chloride shift

Review articles on Chloride shift

Articles on Chloride shift in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Chloride shift

Images of Chloride shift

Photos of Chloride shift

Podcasts & MP3s on Chloride shift

Videos on Chloride shift

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Chloride shift

Bandolier on Chloride shift

TRIP on Chloride shift

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Chloride shift at Clinical

Trial results on Chloride shift

Clinical Trials on Chloride shift at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Chloride shift

NICE Guidance on Chloride shift


FDA on Chloride shift

CDC on Chloride shift


Books on Chloride shift


Chloride shift in the news

Be alerted to news on Chloride shift

News trends on Chloride shift


Blogs on Chloride shift


Definitions of Chloride shift

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Chloride shift

Discussion groups on Chloride shift

Patient Handouts on Chloride shift

Directions to Hospitals Treating Chloride shift

Risk calculators and risk factors for Chloride shift

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Chloride shift

Causes & Risk Factors for Chloride shift

Diagnostic studies for Chloride shift

Treatment of Chloride shift

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Chloride shift


Chloride shift en Espanol

Chloride shift en Francais


Chloride shift in the Marketplace

Patents on Chloride shift

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Chloride shift

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Chloride shift is a process which occurs in a cardiovascular system and refers to the exchange of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) across the membrane of red blood cells.[1] Carbon dioxide (CO2) generated in tissues enters the blood and dissolves in water in the red blood cells to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which then dissociates to form bicarbonate (HCO-3) and a hydrogen ion (H+). When carbon dioxide levels fall as the blood passes through the lungs, bicarbonate levels fall in the serum and bicarbonate moves out of the red blood cells. To balance the charges when bicarbonate exits the cell, a chloride anion from the plasma enters the red blood cell when the bicarbonate anion leaves. Reverse changes occur in the lungs when [[carbon dioxide] is eliminated from the blood. Here, the exchange of bicarbonate for chloride in red blood cells flushes the bicarbonate from the blood and increases the rate of gas exchange.[2] This chloride shift may also regulate the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen through the chloride ion acting as an allosteric effector.[3]


   PLASMA                RBC
   HCO3- <-- <-- <--    HCO3-
   Na+                   K+
   Cl- --> --> --> -->   Cl- 

Bicarbonate in the red blood cell (RBC) exchanging with chloride from plasma


  1. Crandall ED, Mathew SJ, Fleischer RS, Winter HI, Bidani A (1981). "Effects of inhibition of RBC HCO3-/Cl- exchange on CO2 excretion and downstream pH disequilibrium in isolated rat lungs". J. Clin. Invest. 68 (4): 853–62. PMID 6793631.
  2. Westen EA, Prange HD (2003). "A reexamination of the mechanisms underlying the arteriovenous chloride shift". Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 76 (5): 603–14. PMID 14671708.
  3. Nigen AM, Manning JM, Alben JO (1980). "Oxygen-linked binding sites for inorganic anions to hemoglobin". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (12): 5525–9. PMID 7380825.

Template:WikiDoc Sources