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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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C-C motif chemokine 4-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCL4L1 gene.[1][2][3][4]


This gene is one of several cytokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. This protein is similar to CCL4 which inhibits HIV entry by binding to the cellular receptor CCR5. The copy number of this gene varies among individuals; most individuals have 1-5 copies in the diploid genome, although rare individuals do not contain this gene at all. The human genome reference assembly contains two copies of this gene. This record represents the more centromeric gene.[4]


  1. Naruse K, Ueno M, Satoh T, Nomiyama H, Tei H, Takeda M, Ledbetter DH, Coillie EV, Opdenakker G, Gunge N, Sakaki Y, Iio M, Miura R (Feb 1997). "A YAC contig of the human CC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 17q11.2". Genomics. 34 (2): 236–40. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0274. PMID 8661057.
  2. Irving SG, Zipfel PF, Balke J, McBride OW, Morton CC, Burd PR, Siebenlist U, Kelly K (Jul 1990). "Two inflammatory mediator cytokine genes are closely linked and variably amplified on chromosome 17q". Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (11): 3261–70. doi:10.1093/nar/18.11.3261. PMC 330932. PMID 1972563.
  3. Modi WS (Mar 2004). "CCL3L1 and CCL4L1 chemokine genes are located in a segmental duplication at chromosome 17q12". Genomics. 83 (4): 735–8. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2003.09.019. PMID 15028295.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Entrez Gene: CCL4L1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4-like 1". Retrieved 8 February 2013.

External links

Further reading

  • Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (2003). "Macrophage inflammatory protein-1". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (6): 455–81. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(02)00045-X. PMID 12401480.
  • Napolitano M, Modi WS, Cevario SJ, et al. (1991). "The gene encoding the Act-2 cytokine. Genomic structure, HTLV-I/Tax responsiveness of 5' upstream sequences, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (26): 17531–6. PMID 1894635.
  • Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Jitsukawa S, et al. (1991). "Cloning and expression of a lymphocyte activation gene (LAG-1)". Mol. Immunol. 27 (11): 1091–102. doi:10.1016/0161-5890(90)90097-J. PMID 2247088.
  • Lipes MA, Napolitano M, Jeang KT, et al. (1989). "Identification, cloning, and characterization of an immune activation gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (24): 9704–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.24.9704. PMC 282843. PMID 2462251.
  • Brown KD, Zurawski SM, Mosmann TR, Zurawski G (1989). "A family of small inducible proteins secreted by leukocytes are members of a new superfamily that includes leukocyte and fibroblast-derived inflammatory agents, growth factors, and indicators of various activation processes". J. Immunol. 142 (2): 679–87. PMID 2521353.
  • Zipfel PF, Balke J, Irving SG, et al. (1989). "Mitogenic activation of human T cells induces two closely related genes which share structural similarities with a new family of secreted factors". J. Immunol. 142 (5): 1582–90. PMID 2521882.
  • Chang HC, Reinherz EL (1989). "Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a putative cytokine which is induced by stimulation via the CD2 structure on human T lymphocytes". Eur. J. Immunol. 19 (6): 1045–51. doi:10.1002/eji.1830190614. PMID 2568930.
  • Miller MD, Hata S, De Waal Malefyt R, Krangel MS (1989). "A novel polypeptide secreted by activated human T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. 143 (9): 2907–16. PMID 2809212.
  • Lodi PJ, Garrett DS, Kuszewski J, et al. (1994). "High-resolution solution structure of the beta chemokine hMIP-1 beta by multidimensional NMR". Science. 263 (5154): 1762–7. doi:10.1126/science.8134838. PMID 8134838.
  • Cocchi F, DeVico AL, Garzino-Demo A, et al. (1996). "Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells". Science. 270 (5243): 1811–5. doi:10.1126/science.270.5243.1811. PMID 8525373.
  • Bernardini G, Hedrick J, Sozzani S, et al. (1998). "Identification of the CC chemokines TARC and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta as novel functional ligands for the CCR8 receptor". Eur. J. Immunol. 28 (2): 582–8. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199802)28:02<582::AID-IMMU582>3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 9521068.
  • Garlisi CG, Xiao H, Tian F, et al. (1999). "The assignment of chemokine-chemokine receptor pairs: TARC and MIP-1 beta are not ligands for human CC-chemokine receptor 8". Eur. J. Immunol. 29 (10): 3210–5. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199910)29:10<3210::AID-IMMU3210>3.0.CO;2-W. PMID 10540332.
  • Modi WS, Bergeron J, Sanford M (2001). "The human MIP-1beta chemokine is encoded by two paralogous genes, ACT-2 and LAG-1". Immunogenetics. 53 (7): 543–9. doi:10.1007/s002510100366. PMID 11685466.
  • Guan E, Wang J, Roderiquez G, Norcross MA (2002). "Natural truncation of the chemokine MIP-1 beta /CCL4 affects receptor specificity but not anti-HIV-1 activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 32348–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203077200. PMID 12070155.
  • Townson JR, Barcellos LF, Nibbs RJ (2002). "Gene copy number regulates the production of the human chemokine CCL3-L1". Eur. J. Immunol. 32 (10): 3016–26. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(2002010)32:10<3016::AID-IMMU3016>3.0.CO;2-D. PMID 12355456.
  • Lu J, Honczarenko M, Sloan SR (2004). "Independent expression of the two paralogous CCL4 genes in monocytes and B lymphocytes". Immunogenetics. 55 (10): 706–11. doi:10.1007/s00251-003-0636-z. PMID 14673550.