Jump to navigation Jump to search

WikiDoc Resources for Beta-lactam


Most recent articles on Beta-lactam

Most cited articles on Beta-lactam

Review articles on Beta-lactam

Articles on Beta-lactam in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Beta-lactam

Images of Beta-lactam

Photos of Beta-lactam

Podcasts & MP3s on Beta-lactam

Videos on Beta-lactam

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Beta-lactam

Bandolier on Beta-lactam

TRIP on Beta-lactam

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Beta-lactam at Clinical

Trial results on Beta-lactam

Clinical Trials on Beta-lactam at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Beta-lactam

NICE Guidance on Beta-lactam


FDA on Beta-lactam

CDC on Beta-lactam


Books on Beta-lactam


Beta-lactam in the news

Be alerted to news on Beta-lactam

News trends on Beta-lactam


Blogs on Beta-lactam


Definitions of Beta-lactam

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Beta-lactam

Discussion groups on Beta-lactam

Patient Handouts on Beta-lactam

Directions to Hospitals Treating Beta-lactam

Risk calculators and risk factors for Beta-lactam

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Beta-lactam

Causes & Risk Factors for Beta-lactam

Diagnostic studies for Beta-lactam

Treatment of Beta-lactam

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Beta-lactam


Beta-lactam en Espanol

Beta-lactam en Francais


Beta-lactam in the Marketplace

Patents on Beta-lactam

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Beta-lactam



Penicillin nucleus. Beta lactam is the square at the center.



File:Clavulanic acid structure.svg
Clavulanic acid






File:Ampicillin structure.svg



File:Flucloxacillin structure.svg







|} A beta-lactam ring (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The beta-lactam ring is part of the structure of several antibiotic families, principally the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams, which are therefore also called beta-lactam antibiotics. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis. This has a lethal effect on bacteria, especially on Gram-positive ones. Bacteria can become resistant against beta-lactam antibiotics by expressing beta-lactamase.

Beta-lactam resistance

Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to 'break' the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotic's effectiveness.

Response to beta-lactam resistance

As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin, which are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.

Secondary beta-lactam drug resistance

As a response to decreased efficacy of beta-lactamase, some bacteria have changed the proteins that beta-lactam antibiotics bind, the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Since the PBPs no longer recognize the beta-lactams, the antibiotics are essentially useless. This is the mechanism behind the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

See also

External links

de:β-Lactam-Antibiotika ko:베타-락탐 nl:Bèta-lactam-antibioticum

Template:WikiDoc Sources