Amnesia history and symptoms

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Amnesia Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Amnesia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Amnesia history and symptoms On the Web

Most recent articles

cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Amnesia history and symptoms

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Amnesia history and symptoms

CDC on Amnesia history and symptoms

Amnesia history and symptoms in the news

Blogs on Amnesia history and symptoms

Directions to Hospitals Treating Amnesia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Amnesia history and symptoms

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [2] Zehra Malik, M.B.B.S[3]


It is critical to perform a formal and exhaustive assessment of the patient to look for any indications of memory disorders and to hear any subjective complaints. With this information, preventative measures and care can be specifically addressed to the patient's needs. A detailed history of memory loss and associated symptoms is crucial for understanding the etiology of amnesia.


Medical history questions may include:

  • Type
  • Can the person remember recent events (is there impaired short-term memory)?
  • Can the person remember events from further in the past (is there impaired long-term memory)?
  • Is there a loss of memory about events that occurred before a specific experience (anterograde amnesia)?
  • Is there a loss of memory about events that occurred soon after a specific experience (retrograde amnesia)?
  • Is there only a minimal loss of memory?
  • Does the person make up stories to cover gaps in memory (confabulation)?
  • Is the person suffering from low moods that impair concentration?
  • Time pattern
  • Has the memory loss been getting worse over the years?
  • Has the memory loss been developing over weeks or months?
  • Is the memory loss present all the time or are there distinct episodes of amnesia?
  • If there are amnesia episodes, how long do they last?
  • Aggravating or triggering factors
  • Has there been a head injury in the recent past?
  • Has the person experienced an event that was emotionally traumatic?
  • Has there been a surgery or procedure requiring general anesthesia?
  • Does the person use alcohol? How much?
  • Does the person use illicit drugs? How much? What type?
  • Other symptoms
  • What other symptoms does the person have?
  • Is the person confused or disoriented?
  • Can they independently eat, dress, and perform similar self-care activities?
  • Have they had seizures?

Associated Symptoms


  1. Leclerc S, Lassonde M, Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Johnston KM (2001). "Recommendations for grading of concussion in athletes". Sports Med. 31 (8): 629–36. doi:10.2165/00007256-200131080-00007. PMID 11475324.
  2. Sadock, Benjamin J., and Virginia A. Sadock. Kaplan & Sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. Print
  3. Bäckman L, Jones S, Berger AK, Laukka EJ, Small BJ (2004). "Multiple cognitive deficits during the transition to Alzheimer's disease". J Intern Med. 256 (3): 195–204. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01386.x. PMID 15324363.
  4. Profice P, Rizzello V, Pennestrì F, Pilato F, Della Marca G, Sestito A; et al. (2008). "Transient global amnesia during transoesophageal echocardiogram". Neurol Sci. 29 (6): 477–9. doi:10.1007/s10072-008-1034-y. PMID 19031042.
  5. Kolb, Bryan, and Ian Q. Whishaw. Fundamentals of human neuropsychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, 2003. Print.
  6. Walsh RD, Wharen RE, Tatum WO (2011). "Complex transient epileptic amnesia". Epilepsy Behav. 20 (2): 410–3. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2010.12.026. PMID 21262589.
  7. Benezech M, Leyssenne JP (1978). "[Lacunar amnesia and criminal behaviour : realities and medico-legal consequences]". Ann Med Psychol (Paris). 136 (6–8): 918–29. PMID 747264.

Template:WH Template:WS