Amnesia historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zehra Malik, M.B.B.S[2]


Richard Semon in 1904 described that experiences cause some changes in the neurons and these changes are referred to as engram and they form memory of the particular experience in those neurons. Reactivation of these neurons occur when patient tries to recall those memories. Theodule-Armand Ribot, a French psychologist determined that memory loss affects recent memories first. Memories are lost in reverse order of their development.

Historical Perspective


  1. Semon R. (1904). Die mneme [The mneme]. Edited by W. Engelmann. Leipzig
  2. Clark RE (2018). "A History and Overview of the Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory". Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 37: 1–11. doi:10.1007/7854_2017_482. PMID 29589321.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Langer KG (2019). "Early History of Amnesia". Front Neurol Neurosci. 44: 64–74. doi:10.1159/000494953. PMID 31220849.
  4. Alberini CM, Travaglia A (2017). "Infantile Amnesia: A Critical Period of Learning to Learn and Remember". J Neurosci. 37 (24): 5783–5795. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0324-17.2017. PMC 5473198. PMID 28615475.
  5. Berchtold NC, Cotman CW (1998). "Evolution in the conceptualization of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: Greco-Roman period to the 1960s". Neurobiol Aging. 19 (3): 173–89. doi:10.1016/s0197-4580(98)00052-9. PMID 9661992.
  6. Vein A (2009). "Sergey Sergeevich Korsakov (1854-1900)". J Neurol. 256 (10): 1782–3. doi:10.1007/s00415-009-5289-x. PMC 2758215. PMID 19690905.

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