Xipamide

Jump to: navigation, search
Xipamide
Xipamide.png
Xipamide balls.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Pregnancy
category
  • contraindication
Routes of
administration
oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability95%
Protein binding98%
Metabolismglucuronide (30%)
Elimination half-life5.8 to 8.2 hours
Excretionrenal (1/3) and biliary (2/3)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
E number{{#property:P628}}
ECHA InfoCard{{#property:P2566}}Lua error in Module:EditAtWikidata at line 36: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC15H15ClN2O4S
Molar mass354.80 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

WikiDoc Resources for Xipamide

Articles

Most recent articles on Xipamide

Most cited articles on Xipamide

Review articles on Xipamide

Articles on Xipamide in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Xipamide

Images of Xipamide

Photos of Xipamide

Podcasts & MP3s on Xipamide

Videos on Xipamide

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Xipamide

Bandolier on Xipamide

TRIP on Xipamide

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Xipamide at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Xipamide

Clinical Trials on Xipamide at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Xipamide

NICE Guidance on Xipamide

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Xipamide

CDC on Xipamide

Books

Books on Xipamide

News

Xipamide in the news

Be alerted to news on Xipamide

News trends on Xipamide

Commentary

Blogs on Xipamide

Definitions

Definitions of Xipamide

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Xipamide

Discussion groups on Xipamide

Patient Handouts on Xipamide

Directions to Hospitals Treating Xipamide

Risk calculators and risk factors for Xipamide

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Xipamide

Causes & Risk Factors for Xipamide

Diagnostic studies for Xipamide

Treatment of Xipamide

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Xipamide

International

Xipamide en Espanol

Xipamide en Francais

Business

Xipamide in the Marketplace

Patents on Xipamide

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Xipamide

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Xipamide is a sulfonamide diuretic drug marketed by Eli Lilly under the trade names Aquaphor (in Germany) and Aquaphoril (in Austria). It is used for the treatment of oedema and hypertension.

Mechanism of Action

Like the structurally related thiazide diuretics, xipamide acts on the kidneys to reduce sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. This increases the osmolarity in the lumen, causing less water to be reabsorbed by the collecting ducts. This leads to increased urinary output. Unlike the thiazides, xipamide reaches its target from the peritubular side (blood side).[1]

Additionally, it increases the secretion of potassium in the distal tubule and collecting ducts. In high doses it also inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which leads to increased secretion of bicarbonate and alkalizes the urine.

Unlike with thiazides, only terminal renal failure renders xipamide ineffective.[2]

Uses

Xipamide is used for[1][2]

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, 20 mg of xipamide are resorbed quickly and reach the peak plasma concentration of 3 mg/l within an hour. The diuretic effect starts about an hour after administration, reaches its peak between the third and sixth hour, and lasts for nearly 24 hours.

One third of the dose is glucuronidized, the rest is excreted directly through the kidney (1/3) and the faeces (2/3). The total plasma clearance is 30-40 ml/min. Xipamide can be filtrated by haemodialysis but not by peritoneal dialysis.[2]

Dosage

Initially 40 mg, it can be reduced to 10–20 mg to prevent a relapse.[2]

The lowest effective dose is 5 mg. More than 60 mg have no additional effects.[1]

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Interactions

Not recommended combinations

  • Xipamide lowers the renal clearance of lithium which can lead to lithium intoxication.[1] (This interaction is classified as medium.[3])

Combinations requiring special precautions

The product information requests special precautions for these combinations:[1]

  • NSAIDs can reduce the antihypertensive and diuretic effects. Xipamide increases the neurotoxicity of high doses of salicylates. (Classified as minor.[3])

Interactions not included in the product information

Banned use in sport

On 17 July 2012, cyclist Fränk Schleck was removed from the Tour de France by his team RadioShack-Nissan after his A-sample returned traces of xipamide.[4]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Jasek, W, ed. (2007). Austria-Codex (in German). 1 (2007/2008 ed.). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. pp. 600–603. ISBN 978-3-85200-181-4.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Dinnendahl, V, Fricke, U, ed. (2007). Arzneistoff-Profile (in German). 10 (21 ed.). Eschborn, Germany: Govi Pharmazeutischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Klopp, T, ed. (2007). Arzneimittel-Interaktionen (in German) (2007/2008 ed.). Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Information. ISBN 978-3-85200-184-5.
  4. Richard Williams in Pau (17 July 2012). "Frank Schleck tests positive for banned diuretic and is out of Tour". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-07-18.

Linked-in.jpg