Urethritis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [2]

Overview

Urethritis may be caused by either infectious or non-infectious causes. Infectious causes are divided into gonorrheal and non-gonorrheal. Non-gonorrheal pathogens are the most common cause of urethritis; Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common among them.

Causes

Urethritis may be caused by either infectious or non-infectious causes. Infectious causes are divided into gonorrheal and non-gonorrheal. Non-gonorrheal pathogens are the most common cause of urethritis; Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common among them.[1][2][3]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Causes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-infectious causes[4]
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious causes[3]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heavy precipitation of urinary crystals,
chemicals,
bubble bath,
Stevens-Johnson syndrome,
spermicides
 
 
 
Gonococcal urethritis[1]
 
Non-gonococcal urethritis[5][6][7]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chlamydia trachomatis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Mycoplasma genitalium
Herpes simplex virus
Adenovirus
Ureaplasma urealyticum

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning Bath salts, bubble bath, spermicides, talcum powder
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Urethral catheterization, instrumentation
Infectious Disease Adenovirus, Candida albicans, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group D streptococcus, Herpes simplex virus, Lymphogranuloma venereum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Pelvic inflammatory disease, protozoa, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Balanitis xerotica obliterans, Reiter syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Urethral trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Bicycle riding, diaphragm use (contraception), foreign body insertion, heavy precipitation of urinary crystals, physical irritation of the urethra

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kimberly A. Workowski & Gail A. Bolan (2015). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015". MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 64 (RR-03): 1–137. PMID 26042815. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Al-Sweih NA, Khan S, Rotimi VO (2011). "The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men with urethritis in Kuwait". J Infect Public Health. 4 (4): 175–9. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2011.07.003. PMID 22000844.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Le Roux MC, Ramoncha MR, Adam A, Hoosen AA (2010). "Aetiological agents of urethritis in symptomatic South African men attending a family practice". Int J STD AIDS. 21 (7): 477–81. doi:10.1258/ijsa.2010.010066. PMID 20852197.
  4. Herz D, Weiser A, Collette T, Reda E, Levitt S, Franco I (2005). "Dysfunctional elimination syndrome as an etiology of idiopathic urethritis in childhood". J. Urol. 173 (6): 2132–7. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000157686.28359.c7. PMID 15879866.
  5. K. K. Holmes, H. H. Handsfield, S. P. Wang, B. B. Wentworth, M. Turck, J. B. Anderson & E. R. Alexander (1975). "Etiology of nongonococcal urethritis". The New England journal of medicine. 292 (23): 1199–1205. doi:10.1056/NEJM197506052922301. PMID 165407. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. David H. Martin (2008). "Nongonococcal urethritis: new views through the prism of modern molecular microbiology". Current infectious disease reports. 10 (2): 128–132. PMID 18462587. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Michael J. Schlicht, Steven D. Lovrich, Jeffrey S. Sartin, Patricia Karpinsky, Steven M. Callister & William A. Agger (2004). "High prevalence of genital mycoplasmas among sexually active young adults with urethritis or cervicitis symptoms in La Crosse, Wisconsin". Journal of clinical microbiology. 42 (10): 4636–4640. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.10.4636-4640.2004. PMID 15472322. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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