Psychedelic plants

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Psychedelic Plants are plants that contain psychedelic drugs. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes.

Cannabis

Main article: Cannabis

File:Marijuana growing 01.jpg
Female Marijuana Plant

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular and unique psychedelic plant. Cannabis is also unique because it contains a psychedelic substance, THC, that contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, phenethylamine, anticholinergics (deliriant), or a disassociative drug. It is the weakest of the psychedelics but can produce hallucinations at higher doses. Currently, certain universities and research firms are studying the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many US states such as California and many countries have created a Medical Cannabis law to allow patients to use cannabis as (among other things) a pain killer, appetite suppressant and appetite stimulant.

Plants containing psychedelic tryptamines

DMT Molecule

Many of the psychedelic plants contain DMT, which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It can not simply be eaten, and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable, since the user needs to smoke all of it in a minute or else tolerance builds rapidly.






Acanthaceae:

Aizoaceae:

Delosperma acuminatum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
File:Delosperma cooperi1.jpg
Delosperma cooperi
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma ecklonis
DMT[2]
Delosperma esterhuyseniae
DMT[2]
Delosperma hallii
5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma harazianum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma harazianum
Shibam
DMT[2]
Delosperma hirtum
DMT[2]
Delosperma hallii
aff. litorale
File:M. Delosperma lydenbergense flower.JPG
Delosperma lydenbergense
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
File:Delosperma nubigenum.jpg
Delosperma nubigenum
5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma pageanum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma pergamentaceum
Traces of DMT[2]
File:Delosperma tradescantioides leafs IMGP0042.jpg
Delosperma tradescantioides
DMT[2]

Apocynaceae:

Fabaceae family (Leguminosae):

Caesalpinioideae (subfamily of Fabaceae) :

Acacia acuminata
Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[5]
Acacia adunca
β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves[6]
File:Alpina mueller.jpg
Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf[7]
File:Acacia aneura blossom.jpg
Acacia aneura
Psychoactive.[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11]
Acacia angustifolia
Psychoactive,[8] Tryptamines
File:Acacia angustissima usgs.png
Acacia angustissima
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12], NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[13]
Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids.[14] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[15]
File:Starr 031013 8001 acacia auriculiformis.jpg
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[16]
File:Acacia baileyana.jpg
Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman[7][17][18]
Acacia beauverdiana
Psychoactive[19] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
File:Acacia-berlandieri-flowers4.jpg
Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[20]
File:Koeh-003.jpg
Acacia catechu
DMT[2] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia chundra
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei
DMT[21]
Acacia complanata
0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[22][23][24]
File:Acacia concinna Blanco2.374.png
Acacia concinna
Nicotine[25]
File:Starr 050107 2872 acacia confusa.jpg
Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[7] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[26]
File:Acacia constricta flower.jpg
Acacia constricta
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia coriacea
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
File:A-cornigera.jpg
Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive,[8] Tryptamines[27]
File:Acacia cultriformis leaves.jpg
Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[7] and seeds.[15] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds[15]
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Psychoactive[19]
File:Acacia-decurrens2.jpg
Acacia decurrens
Psychoactive,[8] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[18]
Acacia delibrata
Psychoactive[19]
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive,[19] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[18]
File:Acaciafarnesiana1web.jpg
Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[28] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[29] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[30] Alkaloids are present in the bark[31] and leaves.[32] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.[27]
Acacia filiciana
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia floribunda
Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[33] in flowers[15] other tryptamines,[34] phenethylamines[35]
Acacia georginae
Psychoactive,[8] plus deadly toxins
File:Acacia greggii thorns.jpg
Acacia greggii
N-methyl-β-phenethylamine,[12] phenethylamine[36]
Acacia harpophylla
Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total[6]
Acacia holoserica
Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[6]
File:Acacia-horrida.jpg
Acacia horrida
Psychoactive[8]
File:A.Implexa.jpg
Acacia implexa
Psychoactive[37]
Acacia jurema
DMT, NMT
File:Acacia-dealbata.JPG
Acacia karroo
Psychoactive
Acacia kempeana
Psychoactive[8][9]
Acacia kettlewelliae
1.5[6]-1.88%[38] alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine.[6] 0.9% N-methyl-2-

phenylethylamine found a different time.[6]

Acacia laeta
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia lingulata
Psychoactive[8][9]
File:Acacia longifolia fg01.JPG
Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers,[33] 0.2% DMT in plant.[39] Histamine alkaloids.[18]
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark[15]
Acacia macradenia
Tryptamine[15]
File:Acacia maidenii.jpg
Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves[7]
File:Acacia mangium leaf and pods.jpg
Acacia mangium
Psychoactive[8]
File:Acacia melanoxylon branch.jpg
Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf,[40] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
File:600px-Acacia mellifera 3D-Modell.jpg
Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf[7]
File:Acacia-nilotica.jpg
Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia
Tryptamine,[34] DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[37] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.[41]
Acacia oerfota
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[42][17] NMT
Acacia penninervis
Psychoactive[19]
File:Acacia phlebophylla.jpg
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[7]
Acacia platensis
Psychoactive[8]
File:Starr 020911 0004 acacia podalyriifolia.jpg
Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf,[7] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts[33]
File:Acacia polycantha.png
Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf[7] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha
ssp. campylacantha
Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark[43]
Acacia prominens
phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine[33][6]
Acacia pruinocarpa
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
File:Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle.jpg
Acacia pycantha
Psychoactive,[8] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
File:Acacia melanoxylon2.jpg
Acacia retinodes
DMT, NMT,[44] nicotine,[27] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found[18]
Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[45]
Acacia roemeriana
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
File:Acacia-salicina-pod-w-seeds.jpg
Acacia salicina
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
Acacia sassa
Psychoactive[8]
File:Acacia-schaffneri-seed-pods.jpg
Acacia schaffneri
β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[36] Amphetamines and mescaline also found.[27]
Acacia schottii
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
File:Koeh-004.jpg
Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[7] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[29] DMT in bark.
Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf[7]
File:Acacia simplex.jpg
Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[46][7]
Acacia taxensis
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia tenuifolia
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia tenuifolia
var. producta
Psychoactive[8]
File:Eat267.jpg
Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[37]
Acacia verek
Psychoactive.[8] Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT, other tryptamines
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[7] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines[34], 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[15]
Acacia visco
Psychoactive[8]

List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled:[18]

0% C 0.02%, C...Concentration of Alkaloids [%]

Other Plants Containing DMT:

File:Anadenanthera colubrina branch2.jpg
Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil
Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems.[49]
 The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.[50]
File:Anadenanthera peregrina.jpg
Anadenanthera peregrina
Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina

Bufotenine is in the seeds.[52]

File:Fern1.jpg
Desmanthus illinoensis
Dried root 0.200% DMT and dried root bark 0.340% DMT[53]
Desmanthus leptolobus
DMT in root bark[54]
Desmodium caudatum
Roots: 0.087% DMT,[55] Bufotenine-N-oxide 0.03%
File:Desmodium gangeticum.jpg
Desmodium gangeticum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, whole plant, roots, stems, leaves[1]
Desmodium gyrans
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots[1]
Desmodium pulchellum
DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT (dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers[1]
Desmodium racemosum
5-MEO-DMT[1]
File:Desmodium triflorum.jpg
Desmodium triflorum
DMT-N-oxide, roots[1]
Lespedeza capitata
File:Lespedeza ja02.jpg
Lespedeza bicolor
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots[56]
Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark[1]
Mimosa ophthalmocentra
DMT[57]
Mimosa scabrella
DMT in bark[1]
File:Mimosa Hostilis.jpg
Mimosa tenuiflora
(syn. "Mimosa hostilis")
1% DMT in dry root bark.[58]
Mimosa verrucosa
DMT[59]
File:Mucuna pruriens Blanco2.406.jpg
Mucuna pruriens
"The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa, Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT."[60]
Petalostylis casseoides
0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[56]
Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides
DMT in leaves and stems[1]
Phyllodium pulchellum
0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT[56]

Lauraceae:

Malpighiaceae family:


Myristicaceae (Nutmeg family):

Virola calophylla Leaves 0.149% DMT, 0.006% MMT[1]
Virola calophylloidea DMT[59]
Virola carinata DMT in leaves[1]
Virola cuspidata DMT[4]
Virola divergens DMT in leaves[1]
Virola elongata DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and leaves[1]
Virola melinonii DMT in bark[1]
Virola multinervia DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and leaves[1]
Virola pavonis DMT in leaves[1]
Virola peruviana DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark[1]
Virola rufula Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT [62]
Virola sebifera DMT in bark[1]
Virola surinamensis DMT[4]
Virola theiodora DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves and flowers[1] DMT
Virola venosa DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves[1] DMT

Ochnaceae:

Ochnaceae:

Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts[56]

Poaceae family (Gramineae)

Species
Alkaloids (Dried)
File:Arundo.donax1web.jpg
Arundo donax
0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT[63]
File:Phalaris aquatica.jpg
Phalaris aquatica
0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids,[64] 0.100% DMT,[65] 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT,[65]0.005% 5-OH-DMT[65]
File:Rietgras bloeiwijze Phalaris arundinacea.jpg
Phalaris arundinacea
0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids[64]
Phalaris brachystachys
Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed]
File:Phragmites australis Schilfrohr.jpg
Phragmites australis
DMT in roots[1]

None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica.[64]

Polygonaceae:

Punicaceae:

Rubiaceae family:

Species
Alkaloids (Dried)
Psychotria carthagenensis
0.2% average DMT in dried leaves[1]
Psychotria expansa
DMT[4]
Psychotria forsteriana
DMT[4]
Psychotria insularum
DMT[4]
Psychotria poeppigiana
DMT[4]
Psychotria rostrata
DMT[4]
Psychotria rufipilis
DMT[4]
File:Psychotria viridis.gif
Psychotria viridis
DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.[66]

Rutaceae family:

Urticaceae:

Other Indoles

Acoraceae:

Mescaline

Species
Alkaloid Content (Fresh)
Alkaloid Content (Dried)
File:T bridgesii flower 05 JPG.jpg
Echinopsis lageniformis
(Trichocereus bridgesii)
Mescaline > 0.025%,[67] also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%, tyramine < 1%
2%[68]
File:Echinopsis-pachanoi-close-up.jpg
Echinopsis pachanoi
Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average[69]
Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[69]
File:Lightmatter cactusflower.jpg
Echinopsis spachiana
Mescaline[70]
Mescaline[70]
File:Peyote Cactus.jpg
Lophophora williamsii
(Peyote)
0.4% Mescaline[71]
3-6% Mescaline
File:Opuntia basilaris form.jpg
Opuntia basilaris
Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5
-dimethoxyphenethylamine[70]
Opuntia cylindrica
Mescaline 0.09%[70]
Opuntia echinocarpa
Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%, 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%[70]
Opuntia spinosior
Mescaline 0.00004%, 3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[70]
Trichocereus macrogonus
> 0.01-0.05% Mescaline[72]
250px
Trichocereus peruvianus
Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12%[69]
Mescaline
Trichocereus taquimbalensis
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[72]
Trichocereus terscheckii
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[72]
Trichocereus validus
0.025% Mescaline[71]
Trichocereus werdemannianus
Mescaline 0.005-0.25%[69]
Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[69]

Plants containing beta-carbolines

Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own.




Apocynaceae:

Amsonia tabernaemontana
Harmine
Apidosperma exalatum
Beta-carbolines[73]
Apidosperma polyneuron
Beta-carbolines[73]
250px
Apocynum cannabinum
Harmalol
Ochrosia nakaiana
Harman
Pleicarpa mutica
Beta-carbolines[73]


Bignoniacea:


Calycanthaceae:

250px
Calycanthus occidentalis
Harmine

Chenopodiaceae:

Combretaceae:

Cyberaceae:

Elaeagnaceae:

250px
Elaeagnus augustifolia
Harman, etc.
250px
Elaeagnus commutata
Beta-carbolines[73]
Elaeagnus hortensis
Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Elaeagnus orientalis
Tetrahydroharman
Elaeagnus spinosa
Tetrahydroharman
Hippophae rhammoides
Harman, etc.
Shepherdia argentea
Tetrahydroharmol
Shepherdia canadensis
Tetrahydroharmol

Gramineae:

250px
Arundo donax
Tetrahydroharman
Festuca arundinacea
Harman, etc.
250px
Lolium perenne
(Perennial Ryegrass)
Harman, etc.
Phalaris aquatica
Beta-carbolines[73]
Phalaris arundinacea
Beta-carbolines[73]

Lauraceae:

Leguminosae:

Loganiaceae:


Malpighiaceae:

Banisteriopsis argentia
5-methoxytetrahydroharman, (-)-N(6)-methoxytetrahydroharman, dimethyltryptamine-N(6)-oxide[12]
250px
Banisteriopsis caapi
Harmine 0.31-8.43%,[74] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine[75]
Banisteriopsis inebrians
Beta-carbolines[73]
Banisteriopsis lutea
Harmine, telepathine[12]
Banisteriopsis metallicolor
Harmine, telepathine[12]
Banisteriopsis muricata
Harmine
Banisteriopsis rusbyana
Beta-carbolines[73]
Cabi pratensis
Beta-carbolines[73]
Callaeum antifebrile
(syn. Cabi paraensis)
Harmine

Myristicaceae:

Ochnaceae:

Palmae:

Papaveraceae:

Meconopsis horridula
Beta-carbolines[73]
250px
Meconopsis napaulensis
Beta-carbolines[73]
Meconopsis panuculata
Beta-carbolines[73]
Meconopsis robusta
Beta-carbolines[73]
Meconopsis rudis
Beta-carbolines[73]
250px
Papaver rhoeas
Beta-carbolines[73]

Passifloraceae:

Passiflora actinea
Harman
250px
Passiflora alata
Harman
Passiflora alba
Harman
Passiflora bryonoides
Harman
250px
Passiflora caerulea
Harman
Passiflora capsularis
Harman
Passiflora decaisneana
Harman
250px
Passiflora edulis
Harman, 0-7001 ppm[29] in fruit
Passiflora eichleriana
Harman
250px
Passiflora foetida
Harman
250px
Passiflora incarnata
(with bee)
Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.[76] Alkaloids in rind of fruit 0.25%[76]
250px
Passiflora quadrangularis
Harman
Passiflora ruberosa
Harman
250px
Passiflora subpeltata
Harman
Passiflora warmingii
Harman

Polygonaceae:

Rubiaceae:

Rubiaceae:

Rutaceae family:

Sapotaceae:

Simaroubaceae:

Solanaceae:

Symplocaceae:

Tiliaceae:

Zygophyllaceae:

Fagonia cretica
Harman
Nitraria schoberi
Beta-carbolines[73]
250px
Peganum harmala
(Syrian Rue)
The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of which is harmaline.[77] Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient.
Peganum nigellastrum
Harmine
250px
Tribulus terrestris
Harman
250px
Zygophyllum fabago
Harman, harmine

Other psychedelic plants

150px
Salvinorin A
150px

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[78]
100px
Ergine

150px Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.
150px
Ibogaine
150px

Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[79]
150px
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[79]
150px
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[79]
150px
Ibogaine

Tabernaemontana sp.

Ibogaine[79]
100px
Aporphine
150px

Nymphaea caerulea

Recent studies have shown Nympaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is very often confused with Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus), which contains the alkaloid nuciferine, which has sedative and muscle-relaxing properties. The active principal alkaloid in N. caerulea is currently unknown.
150px
Mitragynine
150px

Mitragyna Speciosa

Leaves contain mitragynine (thought to be primary psychoactive), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine. (An unusual stimulant and narcotic-like effect reminiscent of caffeine and opium)
175px
Leonurine
150px

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
175px
Leonurine
150px

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
100px
Active Chemical Unknown
150px

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent.

Convolvulaceae:

250px
Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
D-lysergic acid amide
Rivea corymbosa
D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn
Some Mirabilis sp.
LSA


Apocynaceae family:


Aquifoliaceae family:

  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca.[81] According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.

Euphorbiaceae family:

Loganaceae family:


Lythraceae family:

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 Ayahuasca Analogues
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Trouts Notes on Sacred Cacti
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Bluezoo Tryptamines
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 .
  5. Lycaeum
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Fitzgerald, J.S. Alkaloids of the Australian Legumuminosae -- The Occurence of Phenylethylame Derivatives in Acacia Species, Aust. J . Chem., 1964, 17, 160-2.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 Shaman Australis
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3855025703 at [1] (German)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Book Index from Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann Pflanzen der Götter at DeutschesFachbuch.de (German)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush - Solanaceae - Central America
  11. Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Glasby, John Stephen (1991). Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites. CRC Press. p. 2. ISBN 0850664233.
  13. English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190
  14. Maya Ethnobotanicals
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Acacia (Polish)
  16. Lycaeum
  17. 17.0 17.1 www.serendipity.com
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 www.bushfood.net
  20. Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine
  21. www.abc.net.au
  22. Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies
  23. Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens
  24. Lycaeum
  25. SBEPL
  26. NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German)
  28. Lycaeum
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  30. Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  31. www.bpi.da.gov.ph
  32. Purdue University
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer. p. 500. ISBN 3764329793.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 www.bluelight.ru
  35. Lycaeum (Acacia floribunda)
  36. 36.0 36.1 Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 wiki.magiskamolekyler.org (Swedish)
  38. Acacia kettlewelliae
  39. Lycaeum Acacia longifolia
  40. extentech.sheetster.com
  41. Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies
  42. Plants Containing DMT (German)
  43. Hortipedia
  44. Pflanzentabelle APB (German)
  45. Magiska Molekylers wiki
  46. Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie (APB)
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 47.6 UNO
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.7 48.8 Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  49. Herbotechnica (Spanish)
  50. Erowid
  51. Psychedelics Encyclopedia By Peter G. Stafford, p. 313.
  52. PubMed
  53. Ayahuasca Analogues
  54. www.psychonaut.com
  55. Trout's Notes on Desmodium
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 56.4 56.5 56.6 56.7 .
  57. Erowid Mimosa Vault
  58. Lycaeum -- Mimosa hostilis
  59. 59.0 59.1 UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics 1969
  60. Erowid entry(2002), [2]
  61. DMT Plants List
  62. 62.0 62.1 www.tryptamines.com
  63. Erowid Arundo Donax Info Page 1
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Lycaeum
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 Erowid Phalaris FAQ
  66. Amazing Nature
  67. [3]
  68. Trichocereus
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 69.4 Forbidden Fruit Archives
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 70.5 Visionary Cactus Guide
  71. 71.0 71.1 Erowid
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 Partial List of Alkaloids in Trichocereus Cacti
  73. 73.00 73.01 73.02 73.03 73.04 73.05 73.06 73.07 73.08 73.09 73.10 73.11 73.12 73.13 73.14 73.15 73.16 73.17 73.18 73.19 73.20 73.21 73.22 73.23 73.24 73.25 73.26 73.27 73.28 73.29 73.30 73.31 73.32 73.33 73.34 73.35 73.36 73.37 73.38 73.39 73.40 73.41 73.42 73.43 73.44 73.45 73.46 73.47 73.48 73.49 73.50 73.51 73.52 73.53 73.54 73.55 Angiosperm Families Containing Beta-Carbolines
  74. Callaway JC, Brito GS & Neves ES (2005). Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 145-150.
  75. John Stephen Glasby, Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites, Published by CRC Press
  76. 76.0 76.1 www.drugs.com
  77. www.amazing-nature.com
  78. Clones of Salvia divinorum
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 Tihkal
  80. Catharanthus roseus
  81. Ayahuasca Analogues
  82. Schultes, Richard Evans, Iconography of New World Plant Hallucinogens. p. 101
  83. 83.0 83.1 Sinicuichi FAQ

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