Acacia berlandieri

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Acacia berlandieri
File:Acacia berlandieri branch.jpg
Conservation status
200px
Apparently Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. berlandieri
Binomial name
Acacia berlandieri
Benth.
Range of Acacia berlandieri
Range of Acacia berlandieri

Acacia berlandieri (Berlandier Acacia, Guajillo Acacia, guajillo, huajillo) is a shrub native to the Southwestern United States that belongs to the Fabaceae (bean family). It grows 1m to 5m tall, with blossoms that are spherical and white, occurring from February through April.[1] The berlandieri epithet comes from the name of Jean-Louis Berlandier[2], a French naturalist who studied wildlife native to Texas and Mexico. A. berlandieri contains a wide variety of alkaloids and has been known to cause toxic reactions in domestic animals such as goats.[3]

File:Acacia-berlandieri-flowers.jpg
Acacia berlandieri Foliage and Flowers
Acacia berlandieri Tree
File:Acacia-berlandieri-bark.jpg
Acacia berlandieri Bark
File:Acacia-berlandieri-pods.jpg
Acacia berlandieri Flowers and Seed Pods
File:Acacia berlandieri seeds.jpg
Acacia berlandieri Seeds

Uses

A. berlandieri is toxic to livestock and thus should not be used as forage or fodder.[4]

Alkaloids

A. berlandieri contains a number of diverse alkaloids, the most plentiful of which are N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. In a recent study, researchers identified thirty-one alkaloids in samples of plant foliage, including trace amounts of five amphetamines previously believed to be human inventions:[5] amphetamine, methamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-methoxyamphetamine. Other trace alkaloids include DMT (found in many related species), nicotine, and mescaline (found in many cacti but infrequently in other plants). The same group of researchers later reported finding most of the same alkaloids in A. rigidula, a related species also native to the Southwestern U.S.

Some chemical compounds found in Acacia berlandieri

Total alkaloids in dried leaves 0.28-0.66%.[6]


References

  1. University of Texas Native Plant Information Network
  2. Holloway, Joel Ellis (2005). A Dictionary of Common Wildflowers of Texas & the Southern Great Plains. Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 354063293X.
  3. Clement, Beverly A. (September 1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri". Phytochemistry. Elsevier. 46 (2): 249–254. Retrieved April 1, 2007. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  4. Texas Toxic Plants
  5. Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine
  6. Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer. p. 500. ISBN 3764329793.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas
  8. 8.0 8.1 BEVERLY A. CLEMENT, CHRISTINA M. GOFF and T. DAVID A. FORBES, TOXIC AMINES AND ALKALOIDS FROM ACACIA RIGIDULA, Phytochemistry Vol. 49, No. 5. pp. 1377-1380, 1998

External Links

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