Human blood group systems

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognises 29 major blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems).[1] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the red blood cell surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB RhD positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system) and Lea or Leb positive (Lewis system). Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.

The ISBT definition of a major blood group system is where one or more antigens are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them". [2]

Table

ISBT Common name Official abbreviation Epitope or carrier, notes Locus
001 ABO ABO Carbohydrate (N-Acetylgalactosamine, galactose). A, B and H antigens mainly elicit IgM antibody reactions, although anti-H is very rare, see the Hh antigen system (Bombay phenotype, ISBT #18). 9
002 MNS MNS GPA / GPB (glycophorins A and B). Main antigens M, N, S, s. 4
003 P P1 Glycolipid. 22
004 Rhesus RH Protein. C, c, D, E, e antigens (there is no "d" antigen; lowercase "d" indicates the absence of D). 1
005 Lutheran LU Protein (member of the immunoglobulin superfamily). Set of 21 antigens. 19
006 Kell KEL Glycoprotein. K1 can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell), which can be severe. 7
007 Lewis LE Carbohydrate (fucose residue). Main antigens Lea and Leb - associated with tissue ABH antigen secretion. 19
008 Duffy FY Protein (chemokine receptor). Main antigens Fya and Fyb. Individuals lacking Duffy antigens altogether are immune to malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. 1
009 Kidd JK Protein (urea transporter). Main antigens Jka and Jkb. 18
010 Diego DI Glycoprotein (band 3, AE 1, or anion exchange). Positive blood is found only among East Asians and Native Americans. 17
011 Yt or Cartwright YT Protein (AChE, acetylcholinesterase). 7
012 XG XG Glycoprotein. X
013 Scianna SC Glycoprotein. 1
014 Dombrock DO Glycoprotein (fixed to cell membrane by GPI, or glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol). 12
015 Colton CO Aquaporin 1. Main antigens Co(a) and Co(b). 7
016 Landsteiner-Wiener LW Protein (member of the immunoglobulin superfamily). 19
017 Chido/Rodgers CH/RG C4A C4B (complement fractions). 6
018 Hh H Carbohydrate (fucose residue). 19
019 Kx XK Glycoprotein. X
020 Gerbich GE GPC / GPD (Glycophorins C and D). 2
021 Cromer antigen system CROM Glycoprotein (DAF or CD55, regulates complement fractions C3 and C5, attached to the membrane by GPI). 1
022 Knops KN Glycoprotein (CR1 or CD35, immune complex receptor). 1
023 Indian IN Glycoprotein (CD44 adhesion function?). 11
024 Ok OK Glycoprotein (CD147). 19
025 Raph MER2 Transmembrane glycoprotein. 11
026 JMH JMH Protein (fixed to cell membrane by GPI). 6
027 Ii I Branched (I) / unbranched (i) polysaccharide. 6
028 Globoside P Glycolipid. 3
029 GIL GIL Aquaporin 3. 9

External links

References

  1. "Table of blood group systems". International Society of Blood Transfusion. 2006.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. ISBT Committee on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens. "Terminology Home Page". 



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