Cardiac disease in pregnancy radiation exposure

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Cardiac disease in pregnancy Microchapters

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Overview

Pathophysiology

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Electrocardiogram

Exercise Testing

Radiation Exposure

Chest X Ray

Echocardiography

MRI

CT

Catheterization:

Pulmonary artery catheterization
Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac Ablation

Treatment

Cardiovascular Drugs in Pregnancy

Labor and delivery

Resuscitation in Late Pregnancy

Contraindications to pregnancy

Special Scenarios:

I. Pre-existing Cardiac Disease:
Congenital Heart Disease
Repaired Congenital Heart Disease
Pulmonary Hypertension
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Connective Tissue Disorders
II. Valvular Heart Disease:
Mitral Stenosis
Mitral Regurgitation
Aortic Insufficiency
Aortic Stenosis
Mechanical Prosthetic Valves
Tissue Prosthetic Valves
III. Cardiomyopathy:
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
IV. Cardiac diseases that may develop During Pregnancy:
Arrhythmias
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Hypertension

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]

Overview

If a pregnant patient is radiated with less than five rads, then they can be reassured that there is a very low likelihood of risk. If a pregnant patient is exposed to more than 15 rads, termination of the pregnancy is recommended. A routine chest x-ray is associated with radiation of 20 millirads to the chest. Standard fluoroscopy delivers 1-2 rads per minute. Cineangiography delivers 5-10 rads per minute. Only 5% of the radiation delivered is absorbed by the fetus. A lead apron should be used over the mother's pelvis to minimize the risk of radiation exposure. With the use of nuclear medicine procedures the radiopharmaceuticals collect in the bladder which is in close proximity to the placenta and is directly across from the fetus. The expected radiation with thallium-201 or Tc imaging is less than one rad per examination.

References


Cardiology


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