Alzheimer's disease causes

Jump to: navigation, search

Alzheimer's disease Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Alzheimer's disease from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings




CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Future or Investigational Therapies

Social Impact

Family Impact

Alzheimer's disease causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Alzheimer's disease causes

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Alzheimer's disease causes

CDC on Alzheimer's disease causes

Alzheimer's disease causes in the news

Blogs on Alzheimer's disease causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Alzheimer's disease

Risk calculators and risk factors for Alzheimer's disease causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


Alzheimer's disease may be caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, familial inheritance of mutations in either presenilin 1 gene, presenilin 2 gene or APOE4 gene. Presenilin mutations are associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease, whereas APOE mutations are associated with late onset disease. Environmental factors, such as aging, low level of education and head trauma may also contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease.


The following are the causes of Alzheimer's dementia (AD):[1][2][3][4][5]

Cause Specific characteristics Percentage of cases
Chromosomal (Down syndrome) <1%
All familial ~25%
  • Late-onset familial (AD2)
15%-25% of familial cases
  • Early-onset familial AD (AD1, AD3, AD4)
<2% of familial cases
Unknown (includes genetic/environment interactions) ~75%


  1. "Alzheimer Disease Overview - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf".
  2. Brickell KL, Steinbart EJ, Rumbaugh M, Payami H, Schellenberg GD, Van Deerlin V, Yuan W, Bird TD (2006). "Early-onset Alzheimer disease in families with late-onset Alzheimer disease: a potential important subtype of familial Alzheimer disease". Arch. Neurol. 63 (9): 1307–11. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.9.1307. PMID 16966510.
  3. Campion D, Dumanchin C, Hannequin D, Dubois B, Belliard S, Puel M, Thomas-Anterion C, Michon A, Martin C, Charbonnier F, Raux G, Camuzat A, Penet C, Mesnage V, Martinez M, Clerget-Darpoux F, Brice A, Frebourg T (1999). "Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65 (3): 664–70. doi:10.1086/302553. PMC 1377972. PMID 10441572.
  4. Munoz DG, Feldman H (2000). "Causes of Alzheimer's disease". CMAJ. 162 (1): 65–72. PMC 1232234. PMID 11216203.
  5. Hölscher C (1998). "Possible causes of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid fragments, free radicals, and calcium homeostasis". Neurobiol. Dis. 5 (3): 129–41. doi:10.1006/nbdi.1998.0193. PMID 9848086.