Infertility epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sanjana Nethagani, M.B.B.S.[3]


Infertility is more commonly seen in women >40 years of age. Women who are >35 have a decline in fertility.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence of infertility varies depending on if the infertility is classified as primary or secondary infertility[1].

  • Some studies state that around 25% of couples globally are faced with infertility and childlessness. This number varies according to geographical region, age bracket and other such factors. [2]
  • In the US, it is estimated that around 12.5% of women between the ages of 20-44 have reported being infertile according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey [3]
  • In general, fertility among women declines with age. Age related decline is seen in women around 32 years of age, after which there is a sharper decline in fertility and fecundity. [1]
  • male infertility accounts for around 20-30% of the global cases of infertility. [4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice and Practice Committee (2014). "Female age-related fertility decline. Committee Opinion No. 589". Fertil Steril. 101 (3): 633–4. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.12.032. PMID 24559617.
  2. Himmel, W.; Ittner, E; Kochen, MM; Michelmann, HW; Hinney, B; Reuter, M; Kallerhoff, M; Ringert, RH (1997). "Voluntary Childlessness and being Childfree". British Journal of General Practice. 47 (415): 111–8. PMC 1312893. PMID 9101672.
  3. Kelley AS, Qin Y, Marsh EE, Dupree JM (2019). "Disparities in accessing infertility care in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-16". Fertil Steril. 112 (3): 562–568. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2019.04.044. PMID 31262522.
  4. Agarwal A, Mulgund A, Hamada A, Chyatte MR (2015). "A unique view on male infertility around the globe". Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 13: 37. doi:10.1186/s12958-015-0032-1. PMC 4424520. PMID 25928197.