Infertility risk factors
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sanjana Nethagani, M.B.B.S.
Advanced age is the most important modifiable risk factor for women with infertility. Other risk factors include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, PCOS etc.
Infertility Risk factors
Several factors play a role in infertility among women, such as:
- Advanced age is the most common risk factor. Women who are over the age of 30 have a declining ovarian reserve. 
- Chronic diseases such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypertension etc also may cause infertility.
- Obesity is linked to infertility via various pathways, including peripheral aromatisation of estrogens leading to increased testosterone production which decreases gonadotropin secretion.
- Being underweight also causes infertility as evidenced by the female athlete triad. Low body weight is linked to infertility and sub fertility due to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
- Hormonal imbalance can cause infertility. The most common cause of hormonal imbalance is PCOS.
- Environmental hazards such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drug abuse etc.
- Untreated or improperly treated sexually transmitted infections which can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and cause adhesions, synechiae and scarring.
- Previous pelvic or abdominal surgery.
- Endometriosis and adenomyosis
- Uterine fibroids
- High levels of stress among women have been associated with decreased fertility. 
- ↑ Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Electronic address: email@example.com. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (2018). "Smoking and infertility: a committee opinion". Fertil Steril. 110 (4): 611–618. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.06.016. PMID 30196946.
- ↑ Steiner AZ, Pritchard D, Stanczyk FZ, Kesner JS, Meadows JW, Herring AH; et al. (2017). "Association Between Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve and Infertility Among Older Women of Reproductive Age". JAMA. 318 (14): 1367–1376. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.14588. PMC 5744252. PMID 29049585.
- ↑ Thong EP, Codner E, Laven JSE, Teede H (2020). "Diabetes: a metabolic and reproductive disorder in women". Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 8 (2): 134–149. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30345-6. PMID 31635966.
- ↑ Broughton DE, Moley KH (2017). "Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact". Fertil Steril. 107 (4): 840–847. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2017.01.017. PMID 28292619.
- ↑ Hjollund NH, Jensen TK, Bonde JP, Henriksen TB, Andersson AM, Kolstad HA; et al. (1999). "Distress and reduced fertility: a follow-up study of first-pregnancy planners". Fertil Steril. 72 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1016/s0015-0282(99)00186-7. PMID 10428147.