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In some settings, interventions that are theory-based may be more effective[1][2].

A coding scheme is available to assess whether research is theory-based.[3]


  1. Penney LS, Nahid M, Leykum LK, Lanham HJ, Noël PH, Finley EP; et al. (2018). "Interventions to reduce readmissions: can complex system theory explain the heterogeneity in effectiveness? A systematic review". BMC Health Serv Res. 18 (1): 894. doi:10.1186/s12913-018-3712-7. PMC 6260570. PMID 30477576.
  2. Leykum LK, Pugh J, Lawrence V, Parchman M, Noël PH, Cornell J; et al. (2007). "Organizational interventions employing principles of complexity science have improved outcomes for patients with Type II diabetes". Implement Sci. 2: 28. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-2-28. PMC 2018702. PMID 17725834.
  3. Michie S, Prestwich A (2010). "Are interventions theory-based? Development of a theory coding scheme". Health Psychol. 29 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1037/a0016939. PMID 20063930.