Myeloproliferative neoplasm ultrasound

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohamad Alkateb, MBBCh [2]Shyam Patel [3]


Ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm. Findings on abdominal ultrasound suggestive of myeloproliferative neoplasm include enlarged lymph nodes, hepatosplenomegaly, and ascites. Findings on extremity ultrasound include thrombosis.

Abdominal Ultrasound

The role of abdominal ultrasound is to facilitate assessment of the spleen and liver. Patients with various subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms frequently have enlarged spleens. This is especially true in the primary myelofibrosis subtype of myeloproliferative neoplasm. Ultrasound allows for quantitative assessment of the spleen size. It can also detect liver enlargement, or hepatomegaly. Abdominal fluid such as ascites can also be detected.[1]

Lower Extremity Ultrasound

Lower extremity ultrasound is particularly useful in patients who are suspected of having deep vein thrombosis, which is commonly found in patients with polycythemia vera. Ultrasonography of the deep veins is indicated for patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm who develop leg swelling, erythema, or pain.

Upper Extremity Ultrasound

In rare cases, myeloproliferative neoplasm can result in upper extremity thrombosis. Upper extremity ultrasonography can help with diagnosis of an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis.


  1. Khan J, Sykes DB (2014). "Case report: a 37-year-old male with telangiectasias, polycythemia vera, perinephric fluid collections, and intrapulmonary shunting". BMC Hematol. 14 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/2052-1839-14-11. PMC 4138393. PMID 25143825.

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