Mitral stenosis epidemiology and demographics
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The prevalence of mitral stenosis is approximately 1 per 100,000 in developed countries. The prevalence of mitral stenosis continues to decline as the prevalence of rheumatic fever declines. Currently, the estimated incidence in the United States is 1:100,000. The incidence in higher in developing countries.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The prevalence of rheumatic (the main cause of MS) mitral stenosis is approximately 1 per 100,000 in developed countries. The prevalence of mitral stenosis continues to decline as the prevalence of rheumatic fever declines. Currently, the estimated incidence in the United States is 1:100,000. The incidence in higher in developing countries.
- Rheumatic fever is a disease of childhood. Mitral stenosis usually becomes symptomatic in the third or fourth decade of life.
- Although rheumatic fever occurs in equal numbers in males and females, two thirds of all patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis are females.
- Despite a decline in rheumatic fever, rheumatic disease remains the major cause of mitral valve stenosis. The prevalence of rheumatic disease in developed nations is steadily declining. In United States the prevalence rate is less than 5 per 100,000 persons. This could be attributed to the introduction of penicillin or a change in the virulence of the Streptococcus.
- In countries with low prevalence of rheumatic disease, mitral stenosis may be congenital. Though the incidence is low, these patients have high mortality rates.
- Developing countries have higher rates of rheumatic fever and consequently higher rates of mitral stenosis with prevalence of more than 10 cases per 1,000 in India and 4-10 cases per 1,000 in China, Russia, Africa, and Australia.
- Iung B, Vahanian A (2014). "Epidemiology of acquired valvular heart disease". Can J Cardiol. 30 (9): 962–70. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.03.022. PMID 24986049.
- Movahed MR, Ahmadi-Kashani M, Kasravi B, Saito Y (2006). "Increased prevalence of mitral stenosis in women". J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 19 (7): 911–3. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2006.01.017. PMID 16825001.
- Seckeler MD, Hoke TR (2011). "The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease". Clin Epidemiol. 3: 67–84. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S12977. PMC 3046187. PMID 21386976.
- Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Chatterjee K, de Leon AC, Faxon DP, Freed MD; et al. (2008). "2008 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 118 (15): e523–661. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190748. PMID 18820172.