Keratin 9

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Keratin 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT9 gene.[1][2]

Keratin 9 is a type I cytokeratin. It is found only in the terminally differentiated epidermis of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene encoding this protein cause epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.[3]


  1. Langbein L, Heid HW, Moll I, Franke WW (December 1993). "Molecular characterization of the body site-specific human epidermal cytokeratin 9: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity of gene expression". Differentiation. 55 (1): 57–71. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.1993.tb00033.x. PMID 7507869.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Schweizer J, Bowden PE, Coulombe PA, Langbein L, Lane EB, Magin TM, Maltais L, Omary MB, Parry DA, Rogers MA, Wright MW (July 2006). "New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins". J. Cell Biol. 174 (2): 169–74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177. PMID 16831889.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Reis A, Hennies HC, Langbein L, Digweed M, Mischke D, Drechsler M, Schröck E, Royer-Pokora B, Franke WW, Sperling K (February 1994). "Keratin 9 gene mutations in epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK)". Nat. Genet. 6 (2): 174–9. doi:10.1038/ng0294-174. PMID 7512862.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

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  • Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, et al. (2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kobayashi S, Tanaka T, Matsuyoshi N, Imamura S (1996). "Keratin 9 point mutation in the pedigree of epidermolytic hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma perturbs keratin intermediate filament network formation". FEBS Lett. 386 (2–3): 149–55. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96)00393-6. PMID 8647270.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, et al. (2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization". Curr. Biol. 14 (16): 1436–50. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.07.051. PMID 15324660.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Feng W, Han W, Man X, et al. (2008). "Identification of the keratin 9 (KRT9) N161S mutation in a Chinese kindred with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma". Eur J Dermatol. 18 (4): 387–90. doi:10.1684/ejd.2008.0432. PMID 18573708.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kierszenbaum AL (2002). "Keratins: unraveling the coordinated construction of scaffolds in spermatogenic cells". Mol. Reprod. Dev. 61 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1002/mrd.1124. PMID 11774369.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Endo H, Hatamochi A, Shinkai H (1997). "A novel mutation of a leucine residue in coil 1A of keratin 9 in epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma". J. Invest. Dermatol. 109 (1): 113–5. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12276751. PMID 9204965.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Covello SP, Irvine AD, McKenna KE, et al. (1998). "Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland". J. Invest. Dermatol. 111 (6): 1207–9. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00445.x. PMID 9856842.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hamada T, Ishii N, Karashima T, et al. (2005). "The common KRT9 gene mutation in a Japanese patient with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and knuckle pad-like keratoses". J. Dermatol. 32 (6): 500–2. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2005.tb00789.x. PMID 16043929.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, et al. (2008). "Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome". Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499–508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kobayashi S, Kore-eda S, Tanaka T (1999). "Demonstration of the pathogenic effect of point mutated keratin 9 in vivo". FEBS Lett. 447 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00233-1. PMID 10218578.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Zhao JJ, Zhang ZH, Niu ZM, et al. (2008). "Mutation M157R of keratin 9 in a Chinese family with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma". Int. J. Dermatol. 47 (6): 634–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2008.03441.x. PMID 18477167.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Chen XL, Xu CM, Cai SR, et al. (2009). "Prenatal diagnosis of epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma caused by c.T470C (p.M157T) of the keratin 9 gene in a Chinese kindred". Prenat. Diagn. 29 (9): 911–3. doi:10.1002/pd.2315. PMID 19548225.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lee JH, Ahn KS, Lee CH, et al. (2003). "Keratin 9 gene mutations in five Korean families with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma". Exp. Dermatol. 12 (6): 876–81. doi:10.1111/j.0906-6705.2003.00012.x. PMID 14675368.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Tsunemi Y, Hattori N, Saeki H, et al. (2002). "A keratin 9 Gene mutation (Asn160Ser) in a Japanese patient with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma". J. Dermatol. 29 (12): 768–72. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2002.tb00220.x. PMID 12532041.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Li M, Yang LJ, Hua HK, et al. (2009). "Keratin-9 gene mutation in epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma combined with knuckle pads in a large Chinese family". Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 34 (1): 26–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2007.02384.x. PMID 17362238.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Codispoti A, Colombo E, Zocchi L, et al. (2009). "Knuckle pads, in an epidermal palmoplantar keratoderma patient with Keratin 9 R163W transgrediens expression". Eur J Dermatol. 19 (2): 114–8. doi:10.1684/ejd.2008.0575. PMID 19106041.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Frum R, Busby SA, Ramamoorthy M, et al. (2007). "HDM2-binding partners: interaction with translation elongation factor EF1alpha". J. Proteome Res. 6 (4): 1410–7. doi:10.1021/pr060584p. PMC 4626875. PMID 17373842.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Funakushi N, Mayuzumi N, Sugimura R, Ikeda S (2009). "Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma with constriction bands on bilateral fifth toes". Arch Dermatol. 145 (5): 609–10. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2009.83. PMID 19451521.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>